海洋地殻構造と地殻内熱水循環 Review of Oceanic Crustal Structure and Seafloor Hydrothermal Circulation

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 Seafloor hydrothermal systems are important in relation to global heat and chemical fluxes as well as the distribution of microbial communities within the oceanic crust. From a global context, low-temperature hydrothermal systems located far from the ridge axes are of great importance, because of their large covered area. Our current understandings of seafloor hydrothermal systems come mainly from high-temperature systems on fast-spreading ridges, which are assumed to be typical. Recently, observations have been conducted on high-temperature systems at slow- and ultraslow-spreading ridges. In addition, low-temperature hydrothermal systems far from the ridge axis have been investigated. These findings enable us to obtain a new view of seafloor hydrothermal systems.<br> This paper summarizes recent observational and modeling studies on low-temperature and high-temperature hydrothermal systems. First, we briefly plot seafloor hydrothermal systems and present some historical remarks. Then, we review the most important properties of the crustal structure such as the distribution of heat sources and permeability, which control hydrothermal circulation. These are described in terms of spreading rate. For instance, a hydrothermal system on a fast-spreading ridge is hosted by a quasi-steady magma chamber under the axis, and a system on an ultraslow-spreading ridges is hosted by long-lived tectonic faults at the axis. We also introduce recent numerical simulations both for low-temperature and high-temperature systems including the authors' studies. The main topic of current research is the pattern of circulation of both systems. High-temperature systems are controlled by the phase separation of seawater and the spatial heterogeneities of heat sources. Low-temperature systems instead are mainly affected by the local permeability structure instead. The presence of seamounts is thought to account for heat transport in the oceanic crust.

収録刊行物

  • 地學雜誌

    地學雜誌 118(6), 1037-1063, 2009-12-25

    公益社団法人 東京地学協会

参考文献:  90件中 1-90件 を表示

被引用文献:  4件中 1-4件 を表示

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    10030366924
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00322536
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    REV
  • ISSN
    0022135X
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    10559681
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZM41(科学技術--地球科学)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z15-169
  • データ提供元
    CJP書誌  CJP引用  NDL  J-STAGE 
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