FO膜を用いた水処理技術 [in Japanese] Forward Osmosis Membrane as a Novel Water Treatment Technology [in Japanese]
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Reverse osmosis (RO) is one of the most effective and robust technologies for seawater desalination and wastewater reuse. However, RO uses so huge energy to produce fresh water that the high water production cost is one of the problems for RO process. There has been a growing interest in forward osmosis (FO). The FO process utilizes an osmotic pressure gradient generated by a highly concentrated solution (Draw Solution: DS) to allow water to diffuse through a semi-permeable membrane from a saline feed water (Feed Solution: FS), which has a relatively lower concentration than DS. A FO process consists of FO membranes, FO membrane modules, DS and a DS regeneration system. One of the primary obstacles hindering further development of FO processes is the lack of a suitable membrane designed specifically for osmotically driven membrane processes. A FO membrane requires high water permeability, low solute permeability and low structural parameter to reduce internal concentration polarization inside the membrane support layer. FO processes have potential applications to many desalination fields, such as landfill leachate, oil & gas wastewater, osmotic MBR, wastewater concentration, seawater desalination and pressure retarded osmosis.
MEMBRANE 37(5), 224-229, 2012-09-01
THE MEMBRANE SOCIETY OF JAPAN