Phylogeography of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 (HTLV-1) Lineages Endemic to Japan

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Author(s)

    • OTANI Masashi
    • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University
    • EGUCHI Katsuyuki
    • Department of International Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), the Global Center of Excellence, Nagasaki University
    • ICHIKAWA Tatsuki
    • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University
    • WATANABE Toshiki
    • Department of Medical Genome Sciences, Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, University of Tokyo
    • YAMAGUCHI Kazunari
    • Department of Safety Research on Blood and Biological Products, National Institute of Infectious Diseases
    • NAKAO Kazuhiko
    • Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Nagasaki University
    • YAMAMOTO Taro
    • Department of International Health, Institute of Tropical Medicine (NEKKEN), the Global Center of Excellence, Nagasaki University

Abstract

We conducted phylogenetic analyses and an estimation of coalescence times for East Asian strains of HTLV-1. Phylogenetic analyses showed that the following three lineages exist in Japan: "JPN", primarily comprising Japanese isolates; "EAS", comprising Japanese and two Chinese isolates, of which one originated from Chengdu and the other from Fujian; and "GLB1", comprising isolates from various locations worldwide, including a few Japanese isolates. It was estimated that the JPN and EAS lineages originated as independent lineages approximately 3,900 and 6,000 years ago, respectively. Based on archaeological findings, the "Out of Sunda" hypothesis was recently proposed to clarify the source of the Jomon (early neolithic) cultures of Japan. According to this hypothesis, it is suggested that the arrival of neolithic people in Japan began approximately 10,000 years ago, with a second wave of immigrants arriving between 6,000 and 4,000 years ago, peaking at around 4,000 years ago. Estimated coalescence times of the EAS and JPN lineages place the origins of these lineages within this 6,000–4,000 year period, suggesting that HTLV-1 was introduced to Japan by neolithic immigrants, not Paleo-Mongoloids. Moreover, our data suggest that the other minor lineage, GLB1, may have been introduced to Japan by Africans accompanying European traders several centuries ago, during or after "The Age of Discovery." Thus, the results of this study greatly increase our understanding of the origins and current distribution of HTLV-1 lineages in Japan and provide further insights into the ethno-epidemiology of HTLV-1.

Journal

  • Tropical Medicine and Health

    Tropical Medicine and Health 40(4), 117-124, 2012-12-01

    Japanese Society of Tropical Medicine

References:  33

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10031156766
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11912846
  • Text Lang
    ENG
  • Article Type
    ART
  • ISSN
    13488945
  • Data Source
    CJP  IR  J-STAGE 
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