昆虫外骨格内に存在するメラニン合成酵素  [in Japanese] Enzymes for melanin synthesis in insect in insect cuticle  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 朝野 維起 ASANO Tsunaki
    • 首都大学東京大学院理工学研究科生命科学専攻 Tokyo Metropolita University, Department of Biological Sciences

Abstract

黒〜茶系色素であるメラニンは,地球上の生物に極めてありふれた存在である。髪の毛や鱗・皮膚など,我々脊椎動物の体色形成に関わるほか,植物や原生動物でも黒色色素の合成が観察される。また,本総説で説明する昆虫について見てみると,アリやクロアゲハ・カブトムシなどの色からも明らかなように,メラニンの合成は特に珍しいものではない。しかし,種々の生物がつくるメラニンは,一見すると同じ物体であるかの様に見えつつも,個々の生物に特有の合成経路・合成酵素が存在する。つまり,進化の過程に於いてそれぞれの生き物が独自にメラニン合成能を発達・進化させてきたと考えられる。この総説では昆虫のメラニン合成系について論ずるが,特に我々が直接目にする「昆虫の体そのもの」である外骨格内の酵素群について説明する。ドーパやドーパミンなどのフェノール性基質の酸化反応を触媒する含銅酵素を中心に,それらの基質合成系などにも触れる。また,ヒトなどとの違いについて説明するとともに,その進化学的な意義について議論したい。

Melanin is a brown-black pigment that is distributed to variety of terrestrial organisms. In the case of insects, melanin is synthesized not only for the formation of body color pattern but also in the situation where immune reactions occur. In insect cuticle, two types of enzymes, laccase and prophenoloxidase, are involved in melanin synthesis. They both are copper-containing enzyme and have a role to oxidize phenolic compounds such as L-dopa and dopamine. Laccase and prophenoloxidase belong to distinct family of proteins, three-domain multi-copper oxidase and type-III copper protein, respectively. It has been reported that the RNAi experiments of multiple insect species have shown that laccase is involved in brown-black pigmentation and cuticle hardening during the ecdysis process. In contrast, the knockdown of prophenoloxidase gene does not affect the process of cuticle pigmentation. In contrast to laccase, prophenoloxidase is thought to be responsible for melanin formation at wounded part of the cuticle and at around the invading parasites. This indicates that the melanin formation by the protein is important for defense reactions in insects. Here, this review describes about the systems for melanin synthesis in insects by focusing mainly on the two phenol oxidizing enzymes. It also discusses about the possible history of the systems for melanin synthesis during the evolution of insects.

Journal

  • Hikaku seiri seikagaku(Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry)

    Hikaku seiri seikagaku(Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry) 30(3), 106-114, 2013-09-20

    THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR COMPARATIVE PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY

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Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    10031202766
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10391932
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    REV
  • ISSN
    09163786
  • NDL Article ID
    024921970
  • NDL Call No.
    Z18-1651
  • Data Source
    CJP  NDL  J-STAGE 
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