評価に確証的な処理:スキーマの体制化が帰属と情報探素に及ぼす影響 Evaluation-confirmation:The effects of schema organization on attribution and information seeking

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Abstract

Two experiments were conducted to examine the proposition that once either positive or negative elements in subjects' schema about a target person become cognitively dominant, subsequent information processing is biased to confirm the evaluation of the dominant elements rather than the descriptive content of the schema. In Experiment 1, subjects read a story involving both positive and negative aspects of a target person, wrote an essay about the target person focusing on either the positive or negative aspects, or on both aspects as a manipulation of dominant elements, and made attributions of target person's behaviors. The results indicated that attributional judgments were biased in the direction of the dominant evaluation; positive behaviors were attributed more dispositionally and negative behaviors were attributed more situationally when the positive elements were dominant than when the negative elements were dominant. Experiment 2, using a similar paradigm, revealed that information seeking was confirmatory to the dominant evaluation; subjects sought information indicating positive traits of the target person when the positive elements were dominant but sought information indicating negative traits when the negative elements were dominant. The implications of the findings for affectdriven information processing were discussed, and factors that may hinder the evaluation-confirmation process were considered.

Journal

  • Japanese Psychological Research

    Japanese Psychological Research 34(1), 10-22, 1992

    The Japanese Psychological Association

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