<論文>わが国の優生学・優生思想の広がりと精神医学者の役割 : 国民優生法の成立に関連して  [in Japanese] <Article>Japanese Eugenics and the Role of Psychiatrists  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

ゴルトンに遡る優生学は,第一次世界大戦後のナショナリズムの高揚とともに欧米諸国で広まっていった。とりわけドイツの優生政策はわが国の優生学に影響を与えた。ドイツの優生学(民族衛生)は,遺伝精神医学的な研究と取り組み既に国際的な名声を獲得していた精神医学者の協力で,1933年の強制断種法の制定へと発展していった。この法の主たる犠牲者は精神病患者と精神薄弱者であった。それに対して,わが国の精神医学者は1940年の優生立法になんら決定的な役割を果たしていない。概して立法に対する彼らの態度は否定的なものであった。というのも,精神医学者たちは精神病患者に対する断種の効果や科学的な基盤に懐疑的であったからである。その結果,戦時中(1941-1945年)に断種を受けた患者の数は,当時の諸外国と比較してみると,少数に留まった。だが同時にわが国の精神医学者には,優生学において政治的なあるいは実践的な役割を果たすことができる余地がほとんど残されていなかった。なぜなら,優生立法の基礎となるべき精神医学の遺伝的研究は乏しく,当時の日本にとっては精神疾患よりも栄養不足や結核をはじめとする感染症のほうが重要な克服課題であったからである。

The study of eugenics, which dates back to F. Galton (1822-1911), spread in European countries and the United States after World War I and was associated with the growing nationalism of the times. Germany's eugenic policy had the greatest direct influence on Japanese eugenics. German studies of eugenics (Rassenhygiene) evolved into compulsive sterilization legislation (1933) with help from prominent German psychiatrists, who had been studying psychiatric genetics and had already gained international reputations. The main victims of this legislation were the mentally ill and the mentally retarted. Japanese psychiatrists, however, played no decisive role in Japan's eugenic legislation of 1940. In general their attitudes towards the legislation were negative : they were sceptical about the effects sterilization would have on psychiatric patients as well as the scientific foundation of such a policy. As a result the number of sterilizations performed on psychiatric patients in Japan during World War II (1941-1945) remained rather small when compared to the number of sterilizations performed in other countries during the same period. Having said this, it must be pointed out that Japanese psychiatrists had little room to take either a political or a practical part in this eugenic policy : genetic studies of psychiatry, which should be the base of the eugenic legislation, were poor and Japan, at that time, was more concerned with malnutrition and infectious diseases, e.g. tuberculosis, than it was with psychiatric illnesses.

Journal

  • Bulletin of the School of Nursing, Yamaguchi Prefectural University

    Bulletin of the School of Nursing, Yamaguchi Prefectural University 1, 1-8, 1997-03

    Yamaguchi Prefectural University

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110000034767
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11296902
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • ISSN
    13430904
  • Data Source
    NII-ELS 
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