富山県および広域の神社構成とその風の祭祀への影響 [in Japanese] Composition of Shrines in Toyama Prefecture and in Japan, and their Effects to Wind Festival [in Japanese]
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In this article, the relation between the local and nationwide distribution of Shinto shrines, and the wind festivalsis analyzed, and following results are provided. At first, there is a clear difference of distribution between prominent shrines in Toyama prefecture. Shinmei shrines prevail on alluvial fans or alluvial plains, while Hachiman shrines prevail on the feet of mountains or the mountain areas. Shinmei shrines came later than Hachiman shrines and the areas of distribution of Shinmei shrines are next to the areas with many wind shrines. On the prominent shrines distributing nation-widely, a tendencyis found that many Inari, Suwa, Hachiman, Kumano, Tenman shrines are in a mountain areas, while Yasaka and Shinmei shrines are in plain areas. Furthermore, there are some types of composition of prominent shrines: 1) Inari type, 2) Yasaka type, 3) Hachiman type, 4) Tenman type, 5) Shinmei type. The Shinmei type distribution corresponds well with the nationwide distribution of wind festivals. In addition, Yasaka type and Tenman type distribution correspond with that of wind festivals, too. The nationwide distribution areas of wind festivals correspond also with the areas that have relatively high density of shrines. In such areas, local shrines and wind shrines both have the function of moving disasters aside. Especially, mountain god is similar with wind god. The religions institutions in the mountains often turned into temples because of the mountaineering asceticism they had, which may be different from wind festivals. In addition, function god is usually worshiped in a small place, and the form of festival there is related to the wind festival. Therefore it is thought that they came affect each other and change, together. The prominent shrines came in area from outside and changed through ages. As the Yamato government developed, newly invited gods were received everywhere, especially in Tohoku district, and festivals of the local gods and also wind gods changed in quality. Among the prominent shrines, Hachiman was widely received as a local deity of villages. Prominent shrines were also introduced by the new administrators. It may be considered that newly introduced shrines affected on the wind festivals of local inhabitants, because a shrine is tied to customs as a patron saint. Shinmei shrine was received as a top seat of various gods in later times. Shinmei means the god, and other ordinary old shrines might have been changed to Shinmei shrines. In addition, in Japan Sea side of Tohoku district, there are many sun shrines and fire shrines, too. They might have been invited in the expectation of more sunny days in the winter season. In the late-developed areas, new shrines were connected with wind festivals by necessity of moving disaster aside.
- Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Toyama University
Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Toyama University (5), 35-49, 2002-09
University of Toyama