地方霊場の立地環境と展開について Circumstances of Local Sacred Places and their Development in Japan
There are many sacred places in Japan and pilgrimage people are visiting there. In this paper, the present conditions of some of these sacred places are surveyed, and their environment in the whole country and changes through the historical times are analyzed. Also, the influence of folklore and religion on them is estimated. The results are: 1) in the small-scale sacred places, stone statues are usually deified on the open air or in a small stone house. A form like a line or a circle can be seen on the network of those statues. 2) In the middle-scale ones, there are groups of areas for ascetics training such as waterfalls. 3) In the large-scale ones, the network is constructed with many unique and noted temples. 4) Each sacred point is often at the top or the bottom of the slope around the mountainous districts. And it often adjoins a shrine. 5) The pilgrimage way of a Goddess of Mercy sacred place has the form of a circle, and people walk with their faces turning to the circumference. The pilgrimage way of a Great Priest sacred place also has the form of a circle, but people walk with their faces turning to the center. On the other hand, sacred places along the road have the form of a straight line. 6) There are many Goddess of Mercy sacred places in Tohoku District, while there are many Great Priest sacred places in western Japan. Tohoku District has many basins where are suitable for the form of the Goddess of Mercy sacred place, while southwestern Japan has many islands which are suitable for the form of the Great Priest sacred place. 7) Goddess of Mercy sacred places were established mainly on the Middle Ages; Great Priest sacred places, on the Pre-Modern Ages; and other deities' sacred places, on recent days. Those sacred places have become more varied and larger. 8) Once, gods were deified at, or invited to, the sacred point. Afterwards, other deities were installed as a stone statue at the same point. These sacred points changed their characters and came to assume a Buddhistic one. 9) The Goddess of Mercy and other deities were usually deified in the temples of the Shingon sect. They were not denied by the Zen sect and were accepted when a Zen temple was constructed. As a result, there are many Shingon and Zen temples in the sacred places. 10) Today, pilgrimage season is not limited to spring or autumn; people visit sacred places throughout the year. Behind this may be a decrease in an agricultural population.
富山大学教育学部研究論集 6, 35-48, 2003-09