北陸および広域における霊場と風祭の分布とのかかわり Distribution of Sacred Places and its Relation to that of Wind Festival in Hokuriku District and Japan
Many sacred places face rocks and waterfalls at the feet of mountains, and it is common that the structures there have nature in their bases, even if they belong to a small shrine, a small temple, or a house of ascetic. It is thought that gods of lineage or gods of nature were deified there. Kannon, Yakushi, Fudo, Jizo, etc. were regarded as their Honji, and the character of them became clarified. The buddha of local place is deified there, although it is similar to a shrine, a temple, or an ascetic house. When the stone statue was deified by the side of a rock or a waterfall, the faith object would change to a buddha peculiar to the area, and the buddhas of many areas were produced like the gods. The Paradise of Kannon was familiar because it was on the ocean to the south of Kumano. In the Buddhism of medieval times, these God and Buddha should protect the Buddhism and the country. Moreover, since these statues are fixed, unlike the gods appearing by holly trees, it is necessary to make a pilgrimage to them. The travels to the buddhas in Japan, such as the Kannons in the rock faces and the waterfalls of many places, were essential to disciplinary practice. The Saigoku sacred place, and then the Shikoku sacred place were founded. In the present age, many people travel sacred places. By its activity, the pilgrimage is received widely. Moreover, as passage courtesy and as an annual event, it has a meaning of supporting the system of local society. Especially, wind festival is a folk event in a village, and prays for calamity-removing and fertility, but it has a composite-character. A soul place and a pilgrimage may connect with wind festival, because they also are folk events and have a composite-character. It is thought that while wind festival is performed at shrines, the festival of similar meaning or function is performed at sacred places of the buddhas.
富山大学教育学部紀要 57, 59-73, 2003-02