「ギャル系」が意味するもの:<女子高生>をめぐるメディア環境と思春期女子のセルフイメージについて (テーマ:男女共同参画社会と学びの創造)  [in Japanese] <ARTICLES>Images of Joshikosei in Contemporary Japanese Society  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本稿は,マスメディアによって形成された"強く自由な主体"としての<女子高生>イメージが,同年代の少女たちのセルフ・イメージにどのような影響を及ぼしているのかを,1999~2000年に杉並区と浜松市で実施した質問紙調査とインタビュー調査の結果をもとに分析したものである。少女たちは,マスメディアの<女子高生g&t;イメージが,一部の「ギャル系」と呼ばれる少女たちによって代表されていると見ており,「女子高生=ギャル系」「ギャル系=援助交際」といった画一的・一面的な捉え方に不満を抱いている者が多い。しかし「ギャル系」の強さ,個性,仲間意識に対する肯定的な意見も多く,「ギャル系」に対する共感の存在も確認された。さらに今の時代に「女子高生であること」にどんなよい点があるかを聞いたところ,「自由気ままで楽しく,流行発信などを通じて社会に対して強い影響力を持てる」という回答が多く見られ,そうした"強く自由な"セルフ・イメージの背景に「ギャル系」への共感があることが示唆された。そこで「ギャル系」情報に特化した雑誌3誌の購読者を非購読者と比較したところ,「ギャル系」へのアイデンティフィケーションが強いと思われる購読者の方が,「女子高生であること」をより肯定的に捉える傾向があり,成人男性に声をかけられたり,お金で誘われたりする率も高く,援助交際をより普遍的な現象と捉えていることが明らかになった。しかし,少女たちは自分たちが謳歌している自由や力を,高校時代だけの期限付きのものとして自覚しており,女性として真に"強く自由な"主体形成には必ずしもつながっていない。彼女たちに「今が人生で-番いいときであとは下り坂」と思わせてしまうジェンダーのありようを問題化していくためにも,これまで成人男性と思春期女子が作り上げてきた<女子高生>言説の生成装置に,成人女性がより積極的に介入していく必要があろう。

This study examines the data from a survey and interviews conducted in Tokyo's Suginami Ward and the city of Hamamatsu, Shizuoka Prefecture, in the years 1999 and 2000. The purpose of this research is to clarify how the image of joshikosei (high-school girls) constructed by the media affects the self-image of adolescent girls today; the media frequently portray joshikosei as independent and powerful. The Japanese have adopted the English word "gal" as a colloquial neologism to refer to adolescent girls who are at the cutting edge of fashion trends and who often wear high boots, short skirts, heavy makeup, and so on. Participants in the survey and interviews tended to view "gal-type" girls as the overriding stereotype depicted by the media. Many respondents objected to the identification of gal-type girls with joshikosei in general and to the media's tendency to link those girls with enjo-kosai (teenage prostitution). But some girls tended to sympathize with the positive traits of gal-type girls, such as their assertiveness, individuality, and solidarity. When asked what the merit of being joshikosei in today's society was, many answered that it allowed them to be "free and cheerful as well as socially influential by inventing new fads." This suggested that their sympathy toward gal-type girls might be the basis for their self-image as independent and powerful. A comparative analysis of readers and nonreaders of gal-type magazines demonstrated that readers (who were more likely to strongly identify with the gal-type girls) had a more positive vied of being joshikosei in contemporary society. They were also more likely to have had the experience of being propositioned by adult men (particularly in exchange for money) and to view enjo-kosai as a widespread phenomenon. The girls in the study, however, were well aware that their freedom and power was "time-limited, " i.e., valid only during their high school years. In order to help girls construct truly free female selves, we must problematize the system of gender that makes them believe that "now is the prime time of life and the rest is all downhill." By having adult women intervene in the production of discourse about joshikosei, which has so far been managed by adult men and adolescent girls, we might expect some change in this view of womanhood.

Journal

  • Journal of the National Women's Education Center of Japan

    Journal of the National Women's Education Center of Japan (6), 45-57, 2002

    Independent Administrative Institution National Women's Education Center, Japan

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110000040003
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AA11591979
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • NDL Article ID
    6399280
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE5(社会・労働--社会問題・社会保障)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-C14
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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