Coix 属の改良に関する育種学的研究 (II) : コルヒチン処理によつて育成した四倍体 Coix について Studies on the breeding of genus Coix II : On the tetraploid plant of genus Coix induced by colchicine treatment

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1. Coix属植物の倍数性育種の価値を検討する目的で, 1956年以来ハトムギ及びハトムギ×ジュズダマのF_1種子に対して, 0.1%コルヒチン溶液の芽生処理によつて同質及び異質四倍体植物を育成した。コルヒチン処理は, 両種共1日処理区が変異個体の最大出現区であり, 4xハトムギで14.6%, 4xF_1で15.0%を示した。2. 4xハトムギは, ハトムギに比べ生育がおそく, 成熟期において矮生態を示した。之に反して4xF_1はハトムギ, ジュズダマのいづれよりも生育大で, 伸長の各時期においてまさつていた。3.外部形態を測定した結果, 4xハトムギはハトムギに比して, 葉長, 葉巾, 葉厚, 稈径, 気孔の大きさ, 種子重, 種子の巾, 厚さ及び水分含量等においてすぐれ, 草丈, 分蘗数, 葉数, 葉面積, 生体重, 種子長等において劣つていた。之に反し4xF_1では, 水分含量を除いた測定全形質が大きい値を示した方の親より更に増量し, 特に草丈, 葉長, 葉巾, 葉厚, 稈径, 生体重及び種子重には有意差を認めた。4.花粉稔性は, ハトムギ及びジュズダマは共に良好で95%以上の値を示したが, 4xハトムギは83%, 4xF_1は79%前後に低下した。5.種実稔性もハトムギ及びジュズダマは共に90%前後の良好な結実率を示したが, 4xハトムギでは約20%, 4xF_1では約50%に低下した。猶自家受精では二倍体は50%前後に低下したが, 四倍体では著しく悪く1∿5%であつた。6.二年間の種子発芽試験の結果, 特に四倍体種子に発芽率の上昇が認められ, 1959年では4xハトムギが80%, 4xF_1では94%の極めて良好な値を示した。7.本実験の結果, Coix属の人為倍数体の育種学的利用は, ハトムギとジュズダマの異質四倍体の場合にはかなりの期待をもちうるものと思われる。即ち今後種子生産の向上, 形質の固定化等の操作を継続することにより, 将来のCoix属育種の素材として価値あるものと考える。1. The present paper deals with the results of investigations on the induced tetraploid plant of genus Coix. The coleoptile treatment by 0.1% aqueous solution of colchicine was attempted to the Hatomugi (Coix Ma-Yuen ROMAN. 2n=20) seed and F_1 hybrid (Hatomugi×Juzudama : Coix Lacrma-Jobi L. 2n=20) seed. The plants with big stomata in all treated plants were induced easily in 1 day treatment. That is, the percentage showed 14.6% in 4x Hatomugi and 15.0% in 4x F_1 plant. 2. The progress of growth of 4x Hatomugi was later than Hatomugi and at the ripenning stage 4x Hatomugi showed the dwarf type in plant height and number of tillering. But the growth of 4xF_1 was more excellent than Hatomugi and Juzudama. 3. Some important characters of tetraploids and diploids were studied in the ripenning stage comparatively. 4x Hatomugi were superior to the Hatomugi in leaf length, leaf width, leaf thickness, culm diameter, stomata size, seed weight, seed width, seed thickness and water content. Especially, in leaf thickness, culm diameter and seed weight, the significant differences were recognized statistically. While the plant height, number of tillering, number of leaf, leaf area, plant weignt and seed length were inferior to 4x Hatomugi as compared with Hatomugi, and in plant height, the significant difference was recognized negatively. On the contraly in 4x F_1 plant, all characters except water content were vigorous as compared with the superior parent. Especially, in plant height, leaf length, leaf width, leaf thickness, culm diameter, plant weight and seed weight, the significant differences were recognized statistically. 4. The pollen fertility of 4x Hatomugi and 4x F_1 were 83.1% and 79.5% respectively, in comparision to 98.4% of Hatomugi and to 95.4% of Juzudama. 5. The seed fertility of each tetraploid variety was lower than each diploid species. That is to say, in the natural crossing of same variety the fertility showed 22.0% in 4x Hatomugi and 52.5% in 4x F_1,in spite of the fertility of Hatomugi and Juzudama were 94.6% and 89.2% respectively. The seed fertility, however, varied from 13.7% to 38.6% in the plants of 4x Hatomugi and from 39.6% to 61.5% in 4x F_1. In the case of selfing the seed fertility was lower than natural crossing in all cases. 6. According to the germination test in two years, the germinating percentage of both 4x seeds got better annually. On the germination test in 1959,the germinating percentage of 4x Hatomugi and 4x F_1 were 80.0% and 94.3% respectively, in comparision to 47.5% and 56.5% in 1958. Especially, germination of 4x F_1 seed in 1959 was not significant difference to the Hatomugi (95.0%) and Juzudama (95.7%). 7. From these results mentioned above, it will be identified that the utilization of the induced tetraploid of genus Coix is fairly significant, because the 4x F_1 plant is allotetraploid of Hatomugi and Juzudama were superior to both parent in many important characters as forage crop.

収録刊行物

  • 京都府立大學學術報告. 農學 = The scientific reports of Kyoto Prefectural University. Agriculture

    京都府立大學學術報告. 農學 = The scientific reports of Kyoto Prefectural University. Agriculture 11, 1-"8-3", 1959-09-01

    京都府立大学学術報告委員会

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各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110000057439
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00062275
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • 雑誌種別
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    00757373
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    9027423
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZR7(科学技術--農林水産--農産)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z18-123
  • データ提供元
    CJP引用  NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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