Coix 属の改良に関する育種学的研究 (IV) : ハトムギ, ジユズダマ及びその雜種 F_1 植物の細胞遺伝学的研究(農学部門) Studies on the breeding of genus Coix. IV. Cytogenetical studies of Hatomugi (Coix Ma-yuen ROMAN.), Juzudama (Coix Lacryma-Jobi L.) and its F_1 hybrid (Agriculture)




わが国に広く分布するCoix属のハトムギ(Coix Ma-yuen ROMAN.)とジユズダマ(C. Lacry ma-Jobi L.)の近縁関係を調べる目的で, 細胞遺伝学的方法によつて両植物の核型と, その雑種F_1植物における染色体の行動を観察した。ハトムギ及びジユズダマの根端細胞における体細胞染色体を, aceto carmineによるおしつぶし法によつて観察した。その結果, 両植物の核型を次の如く決定した。ハトムギ : K(2n)=20(2b)=2^<t.cs>A^m+2B^m+2C^m+2^cD^m+2^<cs>E^m+2F_1^m+2F_2^m+2F_3^m+(2G)^<st>+(2H)^<st>ジユズダマ : K(2n)=20(2b)=2^<t.cs>A^m+2B^m+2C^m+2^cD^m+2E^m+2F_1^m+2F_2^m+2F_3^m+(2G)^<st>+(2H)^<st>両植物の核型中第5染色体(E)において若干の形態変化が観察された。即ちハトムギでは第二次狭窄とみられるくびれが観察されたのに反し, ジユズダマでは全く発見されなかつた。E以外の染色体の形態及び大きさには顕著な差が認められず, 両核型には高い類似性が存在するものと思われる。花粉母細胞の減数分裂における染色体対合は, ハトムギ及びジユズダマでは夫々10IIを示したが, その雑種F_1においては観察総数の82%は10IIを示し, 他に9II+2Iが約14%, 4及び6Iも僅少ながら観察された。これらの現象は両植物の染色体間に部分相同性の存在を意味し, 之の主たる原因は核型のE染色体によるものであろう。以上の結果より, ハトムギ及びジユズダマの2種に関しては, 核学的に高い類似性を有するとみてよいが両植物のゲノムは完全に相同ではなく, 部分相同の染色体が存在すると考えられる。1. Cytological studies on genus Coix has ever been carried out by NIRODI (1955). But the karyotype and genome analysis for some species or varieties of the genus Coix have not been studied. With a view to conclude of affinity between Hatomugi (Coix Ma-yuen ROMAN.) and Juzudama (Coix Lacryma-Jobi L.), the authors have studied the karyotype of these plants and the chromosome behavior in meiosis of PMC's of the F_1 hybrid. Both Coix plants have twenty somatic chromosome number. 2. The chromosome structure were observed in the metaphase of somatic cell division of root tip cell. The karyotype of Hatomugi and Juzudama were determined as follows : Hatomugi : Coix Ma-yuen ROMAN.; C. Lacryma-Jobi var. Ma-yuen STAPF. K(2n)=20(2b)=2^<t.cs>A^m+2B^m+2C^m+2^cD^m+2^<cs>E^m+2F_1^m+2F_2^m+2F_3^m+(2G)^<st>+(2H)^<st> Juzudama : Coix Lacryma-Jobi L. K(2n)=20(2b)=2^<t.cs>A^m+2B^m+2C^m+2^cD^m+2E^m+2F_1^m+2F_2^m+2F_3^m+(2G)^<st>+(2H)^<st> As showed in these formulas of karyotypes, there would be differences the structure of chromosome "E". That is to say, there is no secondary constriction in chromosome "E" of Juzudama. All chromosomes except "E" of Hatomugi would be similar to the chromosome of Juzudama respectively in the shape and size. As a result of above observation, it would be recognized that the karyotypes of Hatomugi and Juzudama have high affinity. 3. The chromosome association in meiosis of PMC's of Hatomugi and Juzudama was shown 10II and their form were closed bivalent in most cases. In the F_1 hybrid (Hatomugi×Juzudama), 10II was observed in 82% of all dividing cells, but 9II+2I was about 14%, and few cells with 4I or 6I were observed. As to this phenomena, it would be recognized that the both parental plants have partially homologous chromosome and almost all univalents have derived from E chromosome. 4. From these cytogenetical observation mentioned above, we have arrived at the conclusion that Hatomugi and Juzudama have fairly high affinity in karyotype, but the genomes of them would be at least partially homologous.


  • 京都府立大學學術報告. 農學 = The scientific reports of Kyoto Prefectural University. Agriculture

    京都府立大學學術報告. 農學 = The scientific reports of Kyoto Prefectural University. Agriculture 12, 11-"17-3", 1960-09-01


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    Departmental Bulletin Paper
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    NII-ELS  IR