Coix 属の改良に関する育種学的研究 XII : ハトムギおよびジュズダマの諸形質の地理的変異(農学部門) Studies on the breeding of genus Coix XII : Geographical variation of some characters of Hatomugi, Coix Ma-yuen ROMAN. and Juzudama, Coix Lacryma-Jobi L. (Agriculture)




わが国各地に分布するCoix属植物は, 栽培種のハトムギと, 野生種のジュズダマの2種を主体とし, オニジュズダマの分布は少ない。したがって, ハトムギおよびジュズダマのわが国における生態型を把握するために, 地理的分布にともなう主要形質の変異について考察した。すなわち, 全国各地から収集したハトムギ16系統と, ジュズダマ28系統を1961年に栽植し, 草丈, 分けつ数, 出穂期, 花粉稔性および種子稔性などの諸形質を調査した。その結果は次のとおりである。1)主要形質の系統平均値は, 緯度によってかなり変動しているが, その分散は, 各形質とも野生種のジュズダマの方が大きく, とくに草丈の変異程度はハトムギの4倍に近い。2)諸形質の系統平均値は, 概して緯度との間に負の相関および回帰が存在し, 北方系統ほど矮小な早生型が分布しているが, この傾向は野生種のジュズダマにおいて著しく, 緯度にともなう系統平均値の変動も大きい。3)諸形質の系統内変異については, 両種とも概して北方系統ほど, 草丈, 分けつ数などの茎葉形質の変異が小さく, 形質の安定化が認められる。4)花粉稔性は, 高緯度になるにつれて低稔性個体が出現し, 系統内変異も大きい。5)栽培種のハトムギは, 野生種のジュズダマに比べて, 諸形質の地理的変異も, 系統内の個体変異もともに小さく, 比較的安定した種と考えられる。The origin of genus Coix can be traced to India and South-East Asia. Two main kinds of genus Coix in Japan are Hatomugi (Coix Ma-yuen ROMAN., C. Lacryma-Jobi L. var. Ma-yuen STAPF. etc.) and Juzudama (Coix Lacryma-Jobi L.). It is not clear when Juzudama came over to Japan but it was known pretty early as wild plant, but it is clear from documentary souces that Hatomugi is a comparatively new plant, which came over from China at the biginning of the nineteenth century. Nowadays, these species are distributed throughout Japan as drug and fodder crop (Hatomugi) or wild plant (Juzudama). To investigate geographically the morphological variation in Hatomugi and Juzudama, the present writer had collected many strains of these specics from all part of Japan. The variance of mean of plant height is greater in Juzudama than in Hatomugi and the range of variation is from 72cm to 181cm in Juzudama while in Hatomugi it is from 115cm to 148cm. The plant height of Juzudama is lower at high latitude than at low one, but in Hatomugi this tendency is not manifest. The correlation and regression coefficient between strain mean of plant height and latitude is -0.742^<**> and -14.541^<**> in Juzudama and -0.336 and -1.324 in Hatomugi. The mean of number of tillers is greater in Juzudama than in Hatomugi but the correlation and regression coefficient between strain mean and latitude is negative in both species. And in lower latitude Hatomugi heads earlier while at high latitude there are some strains of Juzudama which heads earlier than Hatomugi. The correlation coefficient in this case is about -0.7 and heading becomes earlier by six days with rise of latitude by one degree. Early maturing type of Hatomugi is seen at high latitude but its correlation is not significant. The variation of character within a strain is estimated by means of coefficient of variation. With regard to plant height, number of tillers and heading date in Juzudama, the coefficient becomes less with the rise of latitude and especially in plant height is shown highly significant negative correlation with latitude. From this result it is manifest that the difference of geogrophical or ecological type between wild species and cultivated ones of Coix in Japan is brought about by the difference of date of introduction and method of availing.


  • 京都府立大學學術報告. 農學 = The scientific reports of Kyoto Prefectural University. Agriculture

    京都府立大學學術報告. 農學 = The scientific reports of Kyoto Prefectural University. Agriculture 18, 1-7, 1966-09-01


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