欺瞞行為における非言語手掛かりの分析 : 性格特性の個人差に基づいて [in Japanese] Analysis of Nonverbal Cues in Deception Through Individual Differences Personality [in Japanese]
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本研究においては, セルフ・モニタリング尺度とマキアヴェリアニズム尺度を用いて, 欺隔行為を遂行する際に観察される非言語手掛かりと個人差変数としての性格特性との関連性を検討した。その結果, セルフ・モニタリング尺度で外向性得点の高い人たちは, 低い人たちに比べ, 欺隔行為中, より多くうなずき, うつむくことが示され, 演技性得点の高い人たちは, 低い人たちよりも多くうなずき, そして, 他者指向性得点の高い人たちは, 低い人たちよりも多く首をかしげることがわかった。また, マキアヴェリアン的特徴性の高い人たちは, 低い人たちに比べ, スマイル時間が短く, うつむきを多く行った。As Goffman (1959) suggests, each people in everyday social iIltercours presents himself and his activity to others, attempts to guid and control the impressions they form of him, and employs certain techniques in order to sustain his per-formance, just as an actor presents a character to an audience. Lying is a usual action in our everyday life. In the definiもion of deception by Ekman (1985), one person intends to mislead another, doing so deliberately, without prior notification of this purpose, and without having been explicitly asked to do so by the target. Thus deception has the character of the strategic behavior. People can use a variaty of channels of nonverbal behavior, in order to guid and control the impression of others. It seems quite reasonable to consider personaliry differences as a potential source of influence on nonverbal behavior. We used two types of personality scales in this study. One is Snyder's self-monitoring scle, and another is Crystie's Machiaverianism scale. In self-monitoring scale, it is hypothesized that high selfmonitors would exhibit more variability in cooperative behavior across social contexts and would be more cooperative with discerning partners and partners with whom they anticipated future interaction than would low self-monitors. In machiaverianism scale,it is hypothesized that high machiaverians would be able to control their emotion, be hardly effected by situations, and use diplomacy. In this study, we examined the relation between nonverbal cues in deceptive situation and individual variaties of self-monitoring scale and machiaverianism scale. The results showed the followings: in deceptive situation, people with high score of extrovercy in self-monitoring scale present more head-noddings and more down-ward lookings, people with high score of performance in self-monitoring scalpresent more head-noddings, and people with high score of other-orientation in self-monitoring scale present more head-inclinings. And people with high score of machiaverianism scale present shorter time of smiling and more head-noddings in deceptlve sltuation.
- Memoirs of Osaka Kyoiku University. IV, Education, pshychology, special education and physical culture
Memoirs of Osaka Kyoiku University. IV, Education, pshychology, special education and physical culture 45(2), 247-262, 1997-02
Osaka Kyoiku University