アメリカの女性の職場進出--女性管理職数増加の背景と要因 [in Japanese] Women's Advancement in the American Workplace :Background and Factors of the Proliferation of Female Management [in Japanese]
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Today approximately fifty-four million women constitute 45.70/0 of the U.S. labor market. The number of women who penetrate the traditionally male-dominant fields such as law, medicine, en-ineering, and business is on the steady rise and, as of 1992,41 .50/0 of the managerial positions were held by women. This paper focuses on American female management to clarify the process of female advancement in the workplace. It will examine how female employment conditions were improved, the nature of women's consciousness, and it will discuss the background and factors of the significant growth in the number of female management personnel. The second part of the paper will report on the 1950s when the majority of women sought family life and devoted themselves to it alone, giving up career development. These women lost their foundation for "career" and were obliged to be engaged m "Jobs " The third part will explore the changing times in the 1960s and 1970s, focusing particularly on the legal system to abandon sexual discrimination. In the 1960s, social trends drastically changed with the women's liberation movement. The clamor for equalization in the workplace became strong-er, and the popularity of this movement gave enormous influence to the improvement of legal forms of equality. Anti-discrimination policies were introduced such as the Equal Pay Act of 1963,Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964,and the Affirmative Action Program by the Executive Order in 1965. These legal forms obliged companies to alter policies, and played a part in realizing women's better employment. The change in consciousness among males and females after the 1970s will be considered in part four. Along with legal, political, and social improvements, efforts to educate without sex segregation was made in the educational field, which laid the ground work for women to penetrate the professional fields. The proliferation of education and career-orientation among women became greater, which boosted the percentage of professional women. Part four also reports significant changes which took place among male and female management's consciousness in a positive manner. Finally, problems pertaining to female management will be presented and discussed. There still remain crucial problems such as the balance between career and family life. Further study on female management should be conducted, investigating these problems of female management.
- Doshisha American studies
Doshisha American studies (31), p69-77, 1994
Alternative:Center for American Studies, Doshisha University