<シンポジウム>新都市映画 : 1970年代のハリウッドと都心部 <SYMPOSIUM>The New Urban Cinema : Hollywood and the Inner City in the 1970s
シンポジウム, Symposium「第2次大戦後のアメリカ映画とイデオロギー」, "Film and Ideology in Postwar America"訳:鳥居祐介
In the 1970s, the American movie industry produced a new urban cinema distinguished by formal and thematic innovations and by its engagement with social conditions that had reached cultural center stage during the urban crisis of the 1960s. In the mid-and late 1960s, the inner city joined the Vietnam War and the student movement as a principal source of social and cultural crisis in America. Race-inflected violence shaped attention to the city, and that violence was traced to larger movements of people and capital : suburbanization of whites and industry, ghettoization of blacks, the seeming collapse of the industrial urbanism that had developed in the first half of the twentieth century. In the 1970s, when the immediate social emergency associated with the riots of the 1960s was over and Americans were used to the notion of the inner city as an appropriate stage for violent drama, Hollywood was ready to make city movies that exploited the dramatic possibilities raised by the urban crisis. The genres of action movies concerned with crime and law and order were at the forefront of this new urban cinema ; examining them, we examine the engagement of a culture industry with a major social crisis. The urban action movies of the 1970s demonstrate the imaginative consequences of crises of the 1960s--not only the social crisis in American cities, but also changes in the movie industry that opened the way for new styles of movie-making. In the early 1970s Hollywood was peculiarly ready to exploit the cultural moment with a new cinematic treatment of the city. That exploitation was initiated at the end of the 1960s but became institutionalized in Holly-wood in 1971 and 1972 when four influential action movies- The French Connection, Dirty Harry. Superfly. Shaft-codified new patterns for the urban cinema, thereby helping to program Americans' habits of imagining the inner city. Using these four pattern-setting movies, I make three claims, which form the three steps of my argument : 1 ) that the new urban cinema was a coherent body of work-that the movies shared formal and thematic properties in their approaches to the inner city ; 2 ) that we can historicize this new urban cinema by understanding how the movies ex-pressed attitudes toward the city typical of American culture and politics in the early 1970s ; 3 ) that we must also historicize this new urban cinema's emergence by understanding changes in Hollywood that made it possible for the movie industry to respond to and shape the cultural moment with stylistic innovations. An American film aesthetic, a popular style, emerged in the wake of the urban crisis. That style made distinctive use of settings, bits of narrative, and novel formal and technical strategies to render the inner city and infuse its landscapes with meaning. That style was in some ways remarkably innovative, both technically and in its willingness to raise difficult questions about the viability of urban social order in America, but its innovations were also reassuringly contained by reference to political and formal conventions with long histories in the Hollywood tradition.
同志社アメリカ研究 34, 99-108, 1998-03