<研究ノート>1907年移民法における「日本人移民問題」 : 連邦議会の審議を中心に <RESEARCHNOTES>The Firsut "Japanese Clause" in the U.S. Immigration Law :Legislative Process of the Immigration Act of 1907
研究ノート, Research Note
The Immigration Act of 1907,basically a partial revision of the 1903 Act of the same name, has been characterized by the following historical significance : (1) Scholars of U.S. immigration policies later emphasized a certain clause therein which provided for the establishment of the joint commission on immigration. (2)With reference to Japanese immigration is-sues, this act is also worthy of attention for its provision authorizing the President to refuse entry to aliens holding passports with visas to another country or to a possession of the United States, if the purpose in fact was for the aliens to ultimately gain entry into the continental United States. Although this provision did not specifically mention Japanese aliens, it was intended to exclude Japanese laborers from entering the mainland U.S. via Canada, Mexico and the then U.S. territory of Hawaii. This so-called "Japanese clause" was created by the U.S. executive branch as a temporary measure to solve the San Francisco school crisis. It was the first time a provision regulating Japanese immigrants was incorporated into U.S. immigration law. The major point of argument during the legislative process of the 1907 Act was the literacy test, intended as a means to restrict immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. While the Senate agreed on the literacy test without notable discussion, the House rejected it by a narrow majority. This led to a deadlock in the conference committee for more than half a year. However, the San Francisco school crisis caused the conferees to reach an agreement whereby the literacy test was dropped from the conference bill and the above mentioned "Japanese clause" was attached as an amendment, although neither the Senate nor House bill had originally included such a clause. This paper explores opinions and attitudes of the Congressmen toward Japanese immigration issues during the 59th Congress, comparing their arguments on these issues with those related to immigrants from southern and eastern Europe. Furthermore, this paper examines the process of how the above mentioned clause was inserted into the bill by the conference committee, and then discusses the influence of the entire process on later immigration policies toward Japanese immigrants.
同志社アメリカ研究 36, 105-117, 2000-03