護城山碑文に見る字喃について <i>Chữ Nôm</i> Characters Contained in the Inscription of Hộ Thành Mountain

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この論文は国立情報学研究所の学術雑誌公開支援事業により電子化されました。This paper aims to introduce one piece of chu nom material, which Henri Maspero mentioned in his article of 1912 as one of the oldest chu nom materials, and the existence of which remained for a long time unconfirmed. This paper also aims to analyze the chu nom characters contained in it from the historical phonological point of view. This material was rediscovered and introduced by Le Thi Lien in her 1989 B. A. thesis. It is an inscription erected in 1343 on the Ho Thanh mountain (nui Non Nuoc) in the present Ninh Binh province, Vietnam. It concerns donations made by local inhabitants for the construction of a temple on the mountain. Before analyzing the chu nom characters in the inscription, we first review the traditional method of analyzing chu nom characters as proposed by Henri Maspero in 1912,for the purpose of demonstrating the limitations of his method in the analysis of our material. We then refer to recent Viet-Muong phonological studies based on the newly discovered and described groups of the Viet-Muong branch such as Arem. Chu't. Ma Lieng. Aheu, and Pong, most of which were not known when Maspero wrote his paper. One of the main phonological features that differentiate them from the Mu'o'ng dialects described by Maspero is the existence of the disyllabic structure : (C_0)vC_1V(C_2)/T. We also utilize newly discovered chu nom materials such as the Sino-Vietnamese text of Phat thuyet a ai bao phu mau an trong kinh, compiled in the 15th century, which also throws light on our analysis. The material contains 11 common words and 18 person or place names written in chu nom characters. The latter 18 proper nouns are the object of discussion. Their common characteristics are the use of two characters for the transcription of one proper noun and occurrence of the vowel /a/ as the first element. We claim for these examples to show (1) certain patterns of the initial consonantal cluster, and (2) the trace of the disyllabic morphemes still preserved in the 14th century Vietnamese. Concerning the former point, we can reconstruct such patterns as /^* bl-/, /^* ml-/, and /^* k'r-/ from our material. The latter point is of special importance. Nguyen Tai Can (1995) reconstructed the major members of the minor syllable ((C_0)v) in the disyllabic structure of Proto Viet-Muong as /^* pə/, /^* tə/, /^* cə/, /^* kə/, /^* sə/, /^* a/, and we can recognize four of them in our matelial : /^* pə/, /^* tə/, /^* kə/, /^* a/. The chu nom characters contained in the Sino-Vietnamese text of Phat thuyet d ai bao phu mau an trong kinh mentioned above, in turn, show all six of them, and the characters transcribing each of these minor syllables coincide with each other between these two materials, a fact that may reinforce the credibility of our analysis. In conclusion, the insertion of a non-distinctive schwa vowel/ə/ between each of the initial consonantal clusters seems to have been common in Vietnamese during the 14th-15th centuries, but not in all cases. And the disyllabic strucure of Vietnamese, or at least the trace of it, is recognized to have existed until as late as 15th century.

This paper aims to introduce one piece of <i>chữ nôm</i> material, which Henri Maspéro mentioned in his article of 1912 as one of the oldest <i>chữ nôm</i> materials, and the existence of which remained for a long time unconfirmed. This paper also aims to analyze the <i>chữ nôm</i> characters contained in it from the historical phonological point of view.<br> This material was rediscovered and introduced by Lê Thị Liên in her 1989 B. A. thesis. It is an inscription erected in 1343 on the Hộ Thành mountain (núi Non Nủớc) in the present Ninh Bình province, Vietnam. It concerns donations made by local inhabitants for the construction of a temple on the mountain.<br> Before analyzing the <i>chữ nôm</i> characters in the inscription, we first review the traditional method of analyzing <i>chữ nôm</i> characters as proposed by Henri Maspéro in 1912, for the purpose of demonstrating the limitations of his method in the analysis of our material. We then refer to recent Viet-Muong phonological studies based on the newly discovered and described groups of the Viet-Muong branch such as Arem, Chứt, Mã Liềng, Aheu, and Pọng, most of which were not known when Maspéro wrote his paper. One of the main phonological features that differentiate them from the Mủờng dialects described by Maspéro is the existence of the disyllabic structure: (C<sub>0</sub>)vC<sub>1</sub>V(C<sub>2</sub>)/T. We also utilize newly discovered <i>chữ nôm</i> materials such as the Sino-Vietnamese text of <i>Phật thuyết đại báo phụ mẫu ân trọng kinh</i>, compiled in the 15th century, which also throws light on our analysis.<br> The material contains 11 common words and 18 person or place names written in <i>chữ nôm</i> characters. The latter 18 proper nouns are the object of discussion. Their common characteristics are the use of two characters for the transcription of one proper noun and occurrence of the vowel /a/ as the first element. We claim for these examples to show (1) certain patterns of the initial consonantal cluster, and (2) the trace of the disyllabic morphemes still preserved in the 14th century Vietnamese. Concerning the former point, we can reconstruct such patterns as /<sup>*</sup>bl-/, /<sup>*</sup>ml-/, and /<sup>*</sup>k‘r-/ from our material. The latter point is of special importance. Nguyễn Tài Cẩn (1995) reconstructed the major members of the minor syllable ((C<sub>0</sub>)v) in the disyllabic structure of Proto Viet-Muong as /<sup>*</sup>pə/, /<sup>*</sup>tə/, /<sup>*</sup>cə/, /<sup>*</sup>kə/, /<sup>*</sup>sə/, /<sup>*</sup>a/, and we can recognize four of them in our matelial: /<sup>*</sup>pə/, /<sup>*</sup>tə/, /<sup>*</sup>kə/, /<sup>*</sup>a/. The <i>chữ nôm</i> characters contained in the Sino-Vietnamese text of <i>Phật thuyết đại báo phụ mẫu ân trọng kinh</i> mentioned above, in turn, show all six of them, and the characters transcribing each of these minor syllables coincide with each other between these two materials, a fact that may reinforce the credibility of our analysis.<br> In conclusion, the insertion of a non-distinctive schwa vowel /ə/ between each of the initial consonantal clusters seems to have been common in Vietnamese during the 14th-15th centuries, but not in all cases. And the disyllabic strucure of Vietnamese, or at least the trace of it, is recognized to have existed until as late as 15th century.

収録刊行物

  • 東南アジア研究

    東南アジア研究 36(2), 149-177, 1998

    京都大学東南アジア研究センター

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110000200796
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00166463
  • 本文言語コード
    JPN
  • 資料種別
    Departmental Bulletin Paper
  • 雑誌種別
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0563-8682
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    4615119
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG74(歴史・地理--アジア・アフリカ--東南アジア)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-392
  • データ提供元
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR  J-STAGE 
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