高学歴化と性別分業:女性のフルタイム継続就業に対する学校教育の効果 Higher Education and the Sexual Division of Labor:the schooling effect on women's continuous full-time employment

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Abstract

女性のフルタイム継続就業に対して学校教育が持つ影響力について論じる。近代型の性別分業に関心を限定するため, 家族経営型の自営業に属する女性はのぞいて分析する。まず戦後日本社会における急激な高学歴化にもかかわらずフルタイム女性の比率が一定水準を保ってきた事実を, 1955-95年のセンサス・データから確認する。ついで1985年, 95年の全国調査による女性個人経歴データを分析する。<BR>大卒女性は一見フルタイム継続率が高いようにみえるが, 教員をのぞいた分析ではこの関連は消える。上の関連は, 教員というフルタイム継続しやすい特別な職業と大卒学歴とがむすびついているための擬似的なものにすぎない。大卒者数と教員数が独立だということから考えて, 高学歴化と女性フルタイム継続率の変化とは無関係と結論できる。女性本人の職業的地位と結婚相手の職業的地位を統制したロジスティック回帰分析でも, 学歴の効果はみられない。<BR>分析結果から, 学校教育はフルタイム継続就業に影響しないといえる。

This paper discusses the effect of education on Japanese women's continuous full-time employment (CFE). Excluding women employed in family enterprises, we focus on the modern sexual division of labor-the division between occupational and domestic labor. First, we confirm with 1955-95 Japan census data that the number of full-time working women has been maintained, despite a substantial rise in their educational standards. Then we analyze personal histories of Japanese women collected through two nationwide surveys at 1985 and 1995.<BR>It seems, upon the first examination, that university graduates tend to pursue CFE. But this correlation between education and CFE disappears when the teaching field is exempted. The correlation is only a conditional one, made up with the known fact that the teaching profession provides significantly greater opportunities for CFE to highly educated women. Since the number of teachers is independent of the number of university graduates, it is difficult to relate fluctuations in the CFE rate and the educational standards.<BR>A logistic regression (excluding teachers) reports that women's education would have no significant effect on CFE, even if their husbands' occupational status and their own occupational status before marriage were kept constant.<BR>The results reject theories of the schooling effect, such as the Sexist Education theory and the Human Capital theory. We conclude that school has no effect on CFE, and that changes in educational standards can hardly alter the sexual division of labor.

Journal

  • Japanese Sociological Review

    Japanese Sociological Review 48(2), 130-142, 1997

    The Japan Sociological Society

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110000226239
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00109823
  • Text Lang
    UNK
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    0021-5414
  • NDL Article ID
    4329678
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE1(社会・労働--社会科学・社会思想・社会学)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-265
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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