ドイツ・デュースブルクにおける外国人ゲットー化と都市計画  [in Japanese] Ghettoization of Foreigners and Urban Planning in Duisburg, Germany  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

ドイツの中で,デュースブルクは,外国人の空間的セグリゲーション度が高い都市の一つに属する.この都市の中でアルト・ブルックハウゼンは,外国人とりわけトルコ人の集中度がひときわ高い街区である.本稿の目的は,このような街区形成の要因を,都市計画の失敗に求め,外国人集中の初期過程を復元することにある.責任ある主体による街区の将来像が提示されないまま,街区取壊しへの不安が, 1970年代前半に住民の間に広まった.そのため,住宅家屋所有者は住宅の質の維持のための投資を怠るようになった.不在家主の中には,老朽家屋を外国人労働者用の寄宿寮として利用した場合もある.この街区最大の住宅所有者たる企業も,住民によって投機的とみられるような賃貸行動をとった.そのため,スラム化が進行していた街区で外国人ゲットー化が進行した.街区のこのような変容は,地域に特有の権力構造のもとでの主体間の社会的相互作用によって帰結したものである.もちろん,より大きな社会経済構造がそれに関与していた.

Duisburg is a German city where foreigners, especially Turks, are remarkably segregated in the residential space. However, if we evaluate the degree of spatial segregation of Turks in Duisburg as a whole, it has been gradually moderated since the late 1980s (Fig. 1). It is also true that the location quotient of Turks has been decreased even in Bruckhausen, where the proportion of foreigners is the highest among the 46 wards in Duisburg, since the late 1980s (Fig. 2). Nevertheless, the proportion of foreigners is remarkably high in that ward. Bruckhausen is the only ward where the proportion is more than 50% (Fig. 3). There has been a tendency for ghettoization of foreigners, especially of Turks, in Bruckhausen.<br> Why has this ward experienced ghettoization? Both structural and psycho-cultural factors including cohesion within the migrant minority have contributed to it. But the ghettoization of Bruckhausen cannot be explained solely by structural factors such as the housing market (Fig. 4). There is no reason to believe that Turks living in this ward differ in psycho-cultural aspects from their compatriots in other wards. If “choice” or “constraint” alone is stressed, it is impossible to explain the locality of Bruckhausen sufficiently.<br> In order to understand the distinctiveness of Bruckhausen, light should be shed on the social interactions among actors under the power structure peculiar to this ward and Duisburg. This paper aims to reconstruct the social interactions leading to the ghettoization of foreigners and its spatial pattern in the early 1970s, when ghettoization began in Bruckhausen.<br> In the late 1960s, an autobahn, Emscher Schnellweg, was planned for construction. The city authorities believed that Alt-Bruckhausen or the center of Bruckhausen would be isolated from the other urban areas of Duisburg due to the autobahn and that it would become unsuitable for a residential area. At that time, August Thyssen Butte (ATH) was doing good business and expanding investment in order to compete internationally with rival companies. ATH actively recruited guest workers, especially from Turkey, from the late 1960s to the early 1970s. A member of the city council and a member of the works council at ATH stated in newspaper articles in 1970 and 1971 that Alt-Bruckhausen would be redeveloped not for a residential area but for enlargement of ATH.<br> While the city authorities presented the plan that would benefit neither Alt-Bruckhausen nor people living here, anxiety about the demolition of Alt-Bruckhausen as a residential area are dominated among the local people in the early 1970s. Landlords began to neglect investments for the maintenance of housing quality. Some absentee landlords used old ramshackle buildings as dormitories for guest workers from abroad. The behavior of the largest landlord in Bruckhausen, a housing company which is a subsidiary of ATH, also seemed to be speculative, at least in the eyes of the local people, because the company's houses which were destined to be demolished for the construction of the autobahn were occupied by guest workers and their families (Fig. 6, Tables. 1 and 2).<br> Alt-Bruckhausen was already tending to become a slum from the 1960s due to pollution from neighboring factories. This tendency was accelerated by the confusing urban planning which resulted in the speculative behavior of landlords. Ghettoization began in that subward under the power structure and social interactions described above.

Journal

  • Geographical Review of Japa,. Ser. A, Chirigaku Hyoron

    Geographical Review of Japa,. Ser. A, Chirigaku Hyoron 70(12), 775-797, 1997-12-01

    The Association of Japanese Geographers

References:  33

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110000521485
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN1016484X
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    00167444
  • NDL Article ID
    4350527
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z8-571
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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