演劇における「さかさまの世界」  [in Japanese] The World Upside-Down in Drama  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

E.R.クルチウスによれば、「さかさまの世界」(mundus inversus)というトポスは、ヨーロッパにおいては古代より存在するという。(1)それは文学作品にかぎらず、もっと広く俗謡や絵画などの民衆芸術のなかにも、繰り返し現れている。古代から中世を経て近代に至るまで、幅広く出現したこの「あべこべの世界」 (the world upside-down,topsyturvy world)のイメージは、地理的に見ても、イギリス、フランス、オランダ、ドイツ、イタリア、ロシア、スカンジナヴイア半島など広範な社会に及んでいる。(2)興味あることには、江戸時代末期の戯作者、鶴屋南北の作品「東海道四谷怪談」や「盟三五大切」にもこの「あべこべの世界」が極めてグロテスクに描かれている。またこれは16世紀のドイツに登場したハンス・ザックスの謝肉祭劇にも見られるが、本論文では、主としてイギリスのエリザベス朝からジェイムス一世の時代にかけて活躍したシェイクスピアとベン・ジョンソンの戯曲を中心にこの問題を考えてみたい。

The topos of mundus inversus is an ancient and wide-spread one, found in popular art and literature throughout Europe from classical times. The most common image is that of a global man standing on his head and thrusting his legs upward. Images of the world upside-down are divided into three groups. The first shows cosmic upsets: fish flying in the air,men hunting on horseback across the sea. The second shows reversals in the normal relationships between animals and men: an ox cutting up a butcher,an ass riding on his master's back. The third category shows reversals in the normal relationships between people. Although the third category is most important from the point of view of stage comedy, the second one can be used to express the symbolic inversion in human society. We find a variety of reversals in man and wife, father and daughter, master and servant relations. KING LEAR is rich in such reversals. But in TWELFTH NIGHT and EPICOENE we find androgynous characters such as Viola-Cesario,and Epicoene. In the Kabuki theater, KAMIKAKETE-SANGO-TAISETSU and SAKURAHIME-AZUMA-BUNSHO written by Tsuruya Nanboku show other kinds of reversals, in which an enemy turns out to be an benefactor,or an heroine of noble birth appears on the scene as a whore. The fact that man can imagine such impossibilities denotes man's remarkable ability. This unique capability of conceiving non-existent worlds is vital to man.

Journal

  • Mushroom Sci. Biotechnol.

    Mushroom Sci. Biotechnol. 6, 115-123, 1998

    Utsunomiya University

Cited by:  4

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110000977504
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10547259
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    13420364
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NII-ELS 
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