中年期親の子育て評価と成人初期子どもの健康状態--リスクケースの早期支援の視点から [in Japanese] The Appraisal of Child Rearing (ACR) of Parents in Middlescence and Health States of Young Adults－from View Point of Primary Intervention－ [in Japanese]
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本研究の目的は中年期の親の子育て評価(ACR) とその子どもの健康状態との関係を検討し､早期支援に役立てることである｡対象は成人初期の子ども198人とかれらの両親－ (母親157人､父親121人) であった｡これらの対象者は1974～79年に東京都において日本版デンバ－式発達スクリーニング検査の標準化(JDDST) の対象となり､その後青年期に至るまで縦断的調査を継続してきた者である｡方法はまず親と子どもそれぞれに対して､質問紙法を実施し､その結果からリスク状態にある者を対象として面接法を実施した｡子どもに対する質問紙の内容は(1) 主訴､(2) 主観的健康状態､(3) 現在の生活習慣､就職状況､他者からの支援の有無､(4) 性役割観､(5) リスク変数10項目､(6) 属性などであった｡両親に対しては子育て評価に関する３項目(ACR) を含む質問紙を実施した｡分析方法は親の子育て評価に関する３項目(ACR) の中から調査時点における中年期の親の評価､即ち"子どもが思い通りに育ったか否か"に注目し､まず肯定群と否定群に分類した｡さらに､父親と母親の組合せによって4群を構成し､これら4群と両親および子どもの健康状態との関連を検討した｡結果と考察； 成人初期の子ども及び両親の健康状態は両親のACR と関係していた｡特に両親がACR に否定的であった群は他の群に比べて子どもだけでなく父親も健康状態不良の傾向にあった｡また､父親が肯定的で母親が否定的群は成人初期の子どもの性同一視とに関係が認められた｡これらの結果は(1)簡単な質問項目ACRによって親子関係及び成人初期にリスク状態にある者をみいだし､早期支援に役立つこと､(2)子育てには父母双方が子どもの健康状態や価値観の形成に深く関与していることを示唆している｡
It is becoming more normative for women to work through their adult life, even after becoming a wife and a mother. Women of middle age face the choice out of the three roles of wife, parents and worker and have to make balance among these roles. On the other hand, demographic changes highlight the evolving nature of midlife. According to Toni Antonucci and Hiroko Akiyama, midlife is the power period, the time when personal goals and accomplishments are being achieved. At the same time, this is also a period when these goals and accomplishments are reflected in their aspirations for others, especially children. The purpose of this study was to investigate the appraisal of the child rearing (ACR) of parents in middlescence in relation to health states of their young adult children at risk as well as their parents. Subject and Method One hundred ninety-eight young adult children and their middle aged parents, 157 mothers and 121 fathers participated in this study. They were a part of the standardization sample of Japanese version of the Denver Developmental Screening Test (JDDST) for pre-school children in 1974-79 in Tokyo who had been followed up to the adolescence. Method : Firstly, questionnaires for subjects and their parents were mailed separately and then interviews were conducted for possible risk children and their parents. The contents of questionnaires for young adults consisted of the following parts mainly ; (1) subjects complaints , (2) subjective health states, (3) present life habits, present employment and support from others, (4) 5 items of gender role perception, (5) 10 risk variables (6) attributes etc.. For parents, the ACR item were included to find out about parents attitude towards child rearing and 4 groups of parents combination based on the ACR (positive or negative ) were constructed. Then, the relationship between the 4 groups on the ACR and health status of parents as well as their young adults children were analyzed. Results and Discussion Health status of young adults children as well as their parents were correlated with the ACR of their parents. Not only young adult children but also their fathers were less healthy than others when both parents were the negative ACR towards their own children. Also, the ACR of parents － the combination of fathers positive and mothers negative appraisal － was correlated with the gender role identification of the young adult children. These results suggest that the simple Questionnaire as the ACR were meaningful as one of useful indicators to identify the young adult children at risk as well as parent-child interaction at risk from the stand point of primary intervention. Also, the strategy of support system on child rearing should be considered in a context of a family based system including mothers and fathers.
- Journal of Okinawa Prefectural College of Nursing
Journal of Okinawa Prefectural College of Nursing (2), 45-50, 2001-02
Okinawa Prefectural College of Nursing