ドイツにおける徴兵制の変容--国家と個人の相克 [in Japanese] Transformation of conscription system in Germany : Confrontation between a state and an individual [in Japanese]
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Military conscription was a part of modernization. In pre-modern times, a feudal lord was not able to use all of the people for military service. By introducing universal suffrage, a modern state was able to enforce people to exercise violence. A modern state attempted to control not only its people's behavior, but also their inner life. An army has functioned as a school of nations. Through training in an army, people were standardized and disciplined. Conscientious objection was a form of "deviation" from the state integration, and therefore objectors were severely punished until the end of World War II. After the horrible experiences of war and the Holocaust, conscientious objection is considered a basic human right and by the state guaranteed. Legislation makes conscientious objection no longer a form of "deviation." The system to integrate objectors in the German Democratic Republic was the construction units (Baueinheiten). Objectors were subjected to ill treatment and lifelong discrimination. Through their experiences, they organized peace movements and provided a vital nucleus for unofficial civil movements during the late 1980s. The state of GDR had failed to integrate objectors and driven them to estrangement. In contrast, the state of the Federal Republic of Germany succeeded in integration through the introduction of civil service (Zivildienst). The number of Zivis outnumbered that of conscripts in the army in 1999. There is now a new impact of objectors on society, because they have become an indispensable part of social welfare service. Now in FRG, soldiers in the army have the right and the duty to refuse a senior officers' order, when the order is inhuman or unlawful. Soldiers should act as citizens with their own responsibility. I would like to survey the transformation of conscription system in Germany, from the viewpoint of how the state has tried to integrate each individual.
- Hiroshima peace science.
Hiroshima peace science. (24), 223-239, 2002