車椅子への移乗介護動作に関する運動学的分析研究 [in Japanese] Kinematic analysis of transferring motion during carrying a subject from the bed to the wheelchair [in Japanese]
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本研究は, 介護作業の中で, 最も体に負担の大きいと言われる車椅子への移乗動作を三次元的撮影し, 映像データに基づいて介護者の重心の変位, 関節角度および身体エネルギーを算出した. 理学療法士(PT)と社会福祉学専攻学生の介護動作との比較検討を行い, 車椅子への移乗動作の特徴を明らかにした. 学生に比べPTの作業時間と作業距離が短かった. 身体の姿勢については, PTはできるだけ腰への負担を軽減するために, 大腿の筋群を主に用いて被介護者を抱き上げ, 腰掛けさせるという動作になっている. このような動作は, 身体の上下動が大きく, 力学的仕事の量も多くなる可能性はあるが, 腰の保護と腰痛の予防には有効な動作と考えられる.
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the subject handling tasks from the viewpoint of biomechanic during the wheelchair transfer helped by a physical therapist (PT) and a student. The center of gravity (CG), the angles of the hip and the knee and the mechanical works for the whole body of the two helpers, the one was a trained PT and the another was a student, were calculated. The movement distance of the CG, the changes of the joint angles and the works were compared between the PT and the student. The motions of the two helpers were videotaped with three video cameras operating at 30 Hz. Three-dimensional coordinates for determining the mechanical work were computed by using Direct Linear Transformation Method from video data. The CG of the student moved about 11% longer distance than the PT during carrying the subject from the bed to wheelchair. The preceding result explains that for PT, because the operating time of subject handling was shorter and moving distance of the CG was smaller, the load acting on the PT was smaller. But on the other hand, the mechanical work of the PT had greater changes than the student, because of the greater keen joint extension of PT. In the lifting movements, to avoid lower back disorder, the PT extended mainly her knee joints to left the subject instead of using the extension of her hip joint. This kind of movement may cost some more energy but will be safer to the low-back of patient handler.
- Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms
Journal of the Society of Biomechanisms 27(1), 37-42, 2003-02-01
Society of Biomechanisms Japan (SOBIM)