農美運動と民芸運動--風土文化の深化と産業地域の革新 [in Japanese] Farmers Art Movement and Folk Art Movement in Japan : localization of cultural climate and evolution of industrial region [in Japanese]
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The industrial arts movement promoted by William Morris exerted a great influence on the evolution of the craft industry in Japan. Not only technology and skills, but also arts and design are important when we consider the evolution of an industrial region, especially at the stage of modern industrial revolution. Before the industrial arts movement, Japan had a long history of Creole, cross-culture and cross-creation, brought about by a symbiosis of artisans as in Koetsu village in Kyoto. It was a result of the industrial arts policy of Kyoto syoshidai, a magistrate of the Tokugawa shogun who expelled Honami Koetsu, closely related with Furuta Oribe from the traditional craft industrial centre and gave the opportunity, room and tolerance, to establish the iconography of his arts. Notwithstanding the superficial similarity between this village and Morris craftsmen association, they had different regional industrial innovation systems closely linked with innovative culture, environment, resources and locus. In the age of so-called Taisho democracy, it became easy to transform the industrial arts movement in Japan and harmonize its movements into local industrial areas that needed a stimulation of technological innovation, skill, arts and design to survive. The Order of Rejuvenation of the Economy in the agricultural, forestry and fishery villages accelerated these kinds of Japanese industrial arts movements, and stimulated the evolution of industrial regions and the metamorphosis of agricultural 122 villages through the development of the new craft of souvenirs. Tatsukichi Fuji promoted the integrated arts movement from 1910, and established modem Koetsu villages, like Obara Japanese Arts Paper. Kenkichi Tomiomoto introduced the idea of the industrial arts movement conducted by William Morris, and developed his thought and strategy in the Tobe pottery production area, although he could not play an active role in the evolution of craft industrial regions, largely due to the lack of political and economic support from the government, in spite of the fact that he was an excellent synthesiser of distinguished and popular socio-cultural movements. Compared with these two leaders, Kanae Yamamoto and Muneyoshi Yanagi played important roles in the evolution of craft industrial regions and the localization of the cultural climate, generating a pioneer spirit, progressive ethos, creative milieu and innovative climate. The farmers' arts movement in Russia was succeeded by Kanae Yamamoto and developed in Japan, together with education in painting, supported by the government. Like William Morris, Muneyoshi Yanagi, a rich liberal, gradually became a charismatic leader of the folk craft movement, and was influential in the evolution of regions based on industrial society, notwithstanding their major generator was in the local innovative climate of the traditional industrial community. Ueda became the national centre of the farmers' arts movement and Matsumoto became the centre of the folk craft movement in the change of dimension and transformation of locus by painting and literature movements in Japan.
- Bulletin of the Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University
Bulletin of the Graduate School of Social and Cultural Studies, Kyushu University 11, 25-50, 2005