秦の商鞅の変法をめぐって [in Japanese] Shang Yang's 商鞅 Reform [in Japanese]
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K'ai-ch'ien-mo 開阡陌 was accomplished by Shang Yang of the Ch'in 秦 state throughout his country. It had two objects; one was to enlarge the land which was to be cultivated in the future, and the other was to enlarge shang-t'ien 賞田, the land to be given for the meritorious services during wars. The word ch'ien-mo means big roads crossing at right angles outsides hsien-ch'eng 県城, the castles. As it has been found that people of the Chin state were allowed to own private properties, above-mentioned reform is thought to be the origin of the big-scale landownership in the time of Shih-huang-ti 始皇帝. This was a knid of development policy, which every state adopted to enlarge the cultivated field in all arears of China in the Chan-kuo 戦国 age, and therefore it was not an exceptional policy. Incidentally, families in China were once regulated by the hsiao-tsung 小宗 system, which required all brothers to live in the same house all their lives, and the system was followed by the san-tsu 三族 system, which required all brothers to live in the some house during the lifetime of their father. From each of those two types a new type emerged, that is, the simple family system, which required man and wife and their nonadult children to live together. Though these types were all recognized, it was not clear which of them was the most universal one in the reform. Shang Yang promulgated the law of fen-i 分異. According to this law, a family had to be split into two when it came to have two adults. That is, each adult son had to leave the family and establish a simple family. Generally speaking, the law of feng-i is estimated highly from a viewpoint of social evolution. But we must give attention to another aspect of Shang Yang's reform; that is, he was compelled to permit the economic function the big families had before they were split into smaller ones to continue to exist. The fact that Shang Yang permitted private properties to be owned and allowed the economic function of the big families even after they ceased to exist shows clear limitations of his reform.
- SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY
SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY 37(4), 333-352,428-42, 1971
THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY SOCIETY