幕末、明治初期における石炭輸出の動向と上海石炭市場 [in Japanese] Trends of Japan's Coal Export and the Shanghai Coal Market in the Late Tokugawa Period and Early Meiji Era [in Japanese]
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The intention of this article is to review statistically the trends of Japan's coal export from the opening of Japan in 1859 to 1880 with special reference to the development of the Shanghai coal market. In the early Meiji era, the coal industry was one of the strategic industries for export for the industrialization of Japan. The rapid increase in the export of coal from Japan was closely connected with the increase of the number of steamers as the trade and transportation developed on the Chinese and Japanese coasts. Shanghai was one of the main coal stations in the Far East as well as Hongkong. It was after 1862 that the import of foreign coals to Shanghai increased on a stable basis. In 1865, over 50 per cennt of the total imported coal was from Britain. British coal, however, began to lose the relative supremacy at the Shanghai coal market in 1866 because of the increase of imported coals from Australia and Japan. The import of coal, especially from Japan and Formosa, in 1866 began to cause a structural change in the Shanghai coal market. In this sense the period from the late 1860's td the early 1870's is characterised as the transitional period from Britain's supremacy to Japan's supremacy in the Shanghai coal market. There was keen competition for the export of coals between Britain, the United States, Australia, Japan and Formosa during this period. Japanese coal gradually became an important factor ill the Shanghai coal market. It superseded British coal in 1870 and entered largely into competition with Australian coal. In 1873 Japanese coal gained the overwhelming advantage in the coal market and British coal was completely ousted from the market. The expulsion of British coal from the coal market reflected the fact that the shipment of coal from Britain could not meet the increasing demand for coal in the Far East and became disadvantageous and that the main destination of Britain's coal export in this area was changing from Shanghai to Hongkong. The Shanghai coal market, therefore, came to be supplied by regional countries, Australia, Japan and Formosa. Japanese coal ousted Australian coal from the market by the late 1870's and supplied 81 per cent of the coal imported to Shanghai in 1880. The main Japanese coal at the Shanghai coal market was Takashima coal which was said to be the best of Japanese coals for steamers. Mitsubishi purchased Takashima mine in connection with their shipping business. As shown in the Takashima mine, Japan's coal industry was developed by the introduction of Western mining technology in order to supply the increasing demand for steamers in the Far East, to export to Shanghai or to sell at Nagasaki, in the early Meiji era; The predominance of Japanese coal in the Shanghai coal market was due to its suitability for steamers, quantity and cheepness compared with foreign coals. After 1876 Miike coal, exported and sold throug Mitsui Trading Company played all important role in the increase of Japanese coal exported to Shanghai. As a whole, the development of the coal industry and coal export of Japan was closely connected with the formation of Zaibatsu during the industrializaticn of Japan.
- SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY
SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY 43(6), 565-587,649-64, 1978
THE SOCIO-ECONOMIC HISTORY SOCIETY