日本海側中北部の地方霊場の開創と寺社分布のかかわり [in Japanese] Establishment of the Local Sacred Places and its Relation to the Distribution of Temples and Shrines in the Central and Northern Part of Japan Sea Coast [in Japanese]
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In this paper, the local sacred places in the central and northern part of the Japan Sea Coast, from Fukui Prefecture to Aomori Prefecture, were treated. Some of them were investigated at their actual locations. And the distribution of the sacred places was compared with those of temples and shrines. Furthermore, the establishment of the sacred places of the area concerned was examined especially from the viewpoint of the mountain worship. The results are as follows.1) In the sacred places of the scale like a prefecture, sacred points are locate on the mountain feet, which form the edge of a plain or a basin. Moreover, the sacred point was established by the side of rocks, mountain streams, etc. 2) As a sacred point, many temples of Shingon group were chosen, as well as those of Tendai and Zen groups. 3) Sacred points are also located in the temple of asceticism or in the Kannonhouses by the shrine precincts. 4) Many Jodo group are seen in the southwest part of the area, and many Zen and other groups in the northeast part. Furthermore, Jodo ones are more in plains, but Zen, Tendai and Shingon ones, in the mountain sides. 5) Temples of Tendai and Shingon groups advanced to the area from early days and have had a strong relation to the sacred places, and the Zen group temples also keep a relation to them. 6) Hachimansha shrines have distributed widely over the area concerned; Inarisha shrines mainly in the northern part, Shinmeisha shrines mainly in the southern part, and Kumanosha shrines mainly inland. 7) Among the prominent shrines, the Kumanosha shrine has a particular connection with Kumano-sanzan and Tendai group, and relates deeply to the sacred places. 8) Originally, pilgrims visited both the sacred places and sacred mountains, and in a pilgrimage is contained the practice in mountains. 9) In Toyama, Tateyama mountain was in the course of the pilgrimage around the whole country. Moreover, it was considered that Saigoku, Bando and Chichibu Pilgrimages were the same as Dewa-sanzan Worship. 10) In northern part of the area, local sacred places connect with the sacred mountains, and climbing those mountains for prayer contains the mountain worship influenced by asceticism in it. As mentioned above, from the distributional point of view, the sacred places connected deeply with the Tendai and Shingon groups, and also with Kumanosha shrines. They were established at early times and located on the peripheries with a special relation to the Kannon. Furthermore, they are connected with asceticism and mountain worship, and it is thought that all these connections formed the fundamental character of the sacred places.
- Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Toyama University
Bulletin of the Faculty of Education Toyama University (7), 35-48, 2004-09
University of Toyama