数種の植物性廃棄物を主材料とした培養土の製造過程における物質変動と各培養土に栽培した植物の生育  [in Japanese] Change of Chemical Composition of Plant Culture Soils in Composting Process of Some Plant Residues and Responses of Plant Growth to Plant Culture Soils  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

前報において植物性廃棄物と浄水場発生土を組み合わせることにより培養土が容易に製造できることを明らかにした.しかし材料とした浄水ケーキがリン酸固定を起こすために可給態リン酸含量がきわめて低く,かつ,交換性カルシウム含量も低い培養土となり,そのことが作物生育の制限因子として働くことを明らかにした.この点を改善し,より良好な培養土を製造することを目的として,本試験では過リン酸石灰および発泡ケイ酸カルシウム材を加えた培養土の製造を試みるとともに,その培養土製造過程における物質変動を調査した.なお,供試植物残さとしては前報と同じ草種(セイタカアワダチソウ,ヨモギ,ススキ,ダイズ,トウモロコシの茎葉)を用いたが,それ以外にモリシマアカシアのせん定枝も供試した.1)供試した植物材料の乾物分解,炭素消失および窒素消失はいずれも埋設1ヶ月間で急激に起こり,その分解,消失率はいずれもダイズ,トウモロコシ,セイタカアワダチソウにおいて高く,ススキ,モリシマアカシアにおいて低かった.また,乾物分解率と植物材料の成分との間には,全炭素含量との間に負の相関が認められた.2)供試植物材料の違いによって製造した培養土の硝酸態窒素含量は異なり,ダイズを植物材料としたものでは最も高く,ススキを材料としたものではきわめて低含量であった.また,ダイズ,トウモロコシを材料としたものでは培養土の堆積に伴い低下傾向を示し,ヨモギ,モリシマアカシアの材料としたものでは高まる傾向を示した.3)過リン酸石灰と発泡ケイ酸カルシウム材の添加により,Ca型リン酸含量と交換性カルシウムの含量の高い良好な培養土が製造できた.4)それら培養土で栽培したコマツナの生育は化学肥料を施肥した土壌に栽培したものに比べて良好な生育を示し,特に根部生育は高まった.したがって,植物の生育反応の点からみても良質な培養土が製造できたことがうかがわれた.以上の結果から,植物性廃棄物を主材料とした培養土の製造に際しては,材料とする植物性廃棄物の種類によって堆積時間を多少考慮することが必要であるが,果・葉菜類等の育苗用培養土として利用可能であるものと推察された.

We indicated in the previous paper that plant culture soil was easily manufactured by mixing and composting plant residues with sludge derived from water purification process. However, the contents of available phosphate and exchangeable calcium (Ex-Ca) in plant culture soils previously reported were markedly low, and it seemed to be responsible for the retardation of plant growth. In this paper, plant culture soils were manufactured by mixing and composting plant residues with sludges from water purification process under the supplementation of superphosphate and formed calcium silicate. Plant residues used in this experiment were tall golden-rot, mugwart, Japanese plume-glass, soybean, corn and black wattle. The results obtained were as follows. 1. Decomposition of any plant residues measured by the losses of dry matter, carbon and nitrogen rapidly occurred within the first one month after composting, and then the decomposition rate gradually became low, although it depended on plant species. In addition, it was recognized that the rate of decomposition was higher in order of corn>toll golden-rot>soybean>mugwart>black wattle>japanese plume-glass. There was a negative correlation between carbon content in plant residues and dry matter loss. 2. Nitrate nitrogen (NO_3-N) content of plant culture soils manufactured in this experiment was affected by plant species. Namely, the content was the highest in the plant culture soil made from soybean residues, and conversely was the lowest in the culture soils made from japanese plume-glass. Moreover, it was recognized that with the elapse of composting period, the NO_3-N content of plant culture soils made from soybean and corn residues decreased, while plant culture soils made from mugwart and black wattle increased. 3. Supplementation of superphosphate and formed calcium silicate resulted in the remarkable increase of available P_2O_5 and Ex-Ca contents in plant culture soils. 4. Growth of komatsuna, used as that plant, was higher in any plant culture soils manufactured than in control soil (fertilized soil). Consequently, it was considered that the plant culture soils manufactured by mixing and composting sludges from water purification process with plant residues gathered from arable land were useful as pot culture soils for rearing of vegetable seedlings.

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

    Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition 64(1), 1-8, 1993

    Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition

Cited by:  7

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110001754185
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00195767
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    0029-0610
  • NDL Article ID
    3813492
  • NDL Source Classification
    RB13(農産--土壌・肥料)
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZR7(科学技術--農林水産--農産)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z18-331
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE  JASI 
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