M.26わい性台木利用リンゴ樹における生産構造と光環境に及ぼす栽植密度の影響  [in Japanese] Effects of Planting Density on Productive Structure and Light Environment in 'Starking Delicious' Apple Trees Grafted on M.26 Dwarfing Rootstock  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

主幹形の11年生M.26台木利用'スターキング・デリシャス'リンゴ樹を供試し, 栽植密度が生産構造と光環境に及ぼす影響について検討した.1. 453&acd;623樹・ha<SUP>-1</SUP>区における低密度域の個体群は, 円錐形をした樹の集まりで, 樹冠層は凹凸状態であった.しかし, 栽植密度の増加に伴って樹冠のうっ閉が進むと, 樹は円筒形に変化し, 樹冠が完全にうっ閉した高密度域では, あたかも一つの個体のような形態を示した.2. 623樹・ha<SUP>-1</SUP>区の生産構造は針葉樹型であったが, 栽植密度の増加に伴って広葉樹型に移行した.3. 生産構造の果実重と葉重は, 対応した分布を示した.果実生産量は623樹・ha<SUP>-1</SUP>区が最も高く, 針葉樹型生産構造が高い果実生産性を有することが示された.4. 果実生産量(Yd)と葉の果実生産能率(Yd/F)の関係は, 式(1)のYd=1.348+3.109(Yd/F)で表され, 針葉樹型生産構造の高い果実生産性が葉の高い果実生産能率に依存していることが示された.5. 吸光係数(K)は栽植密度の増加に伴って低下した.すなわち, 果実生産はKの低下に伴って減少し, Kに対して物質生産と相反した関係にあることが示された.6. 果実生産量(Yd)と光捕捉率(LI)の関係は, 定義域69.9%≦LI≦92.2%を条件として, 式(2)のYd=-150.42+4.175(LI)-0.0273(LI)<SUP>2</SUP>で近似できた.果実生産量が最大になる最適光捕捉率(LI<SUB>opt</SUB>)は76.5%であった.7. LI<SUB>opt</SUB>における栽植密度とLAIは, それぞれ既報(黒田・千葉, 1999)の最適栽植密度と最適LAIに一致した.8. LI<SUB>opt</SUB>における個体群構造の特性は, 個体群内の空間, 樹冠層の凹凸および針葉樹型生産構造であった.9. 式(1)と(2)から導いた葉の果実生産能率(Yd/F)と光捕捉率(LI)の関係式, Yd/F=48.816+1.343(LI)-0.009(LI)<SUP>2</SUP>は, 定義域69.9%≦LI≦92.2%を条件として, 実測値とよく一致し, 葉の果実生産能率が光捕捉率に依存していることが示された.以上の結果から, 果実生産性の高いわい性台木利用リンゴ園はLI<SUB>opt</SUB>を示すLAIを維持することにより構築できることが示唆された.このような園は針葉樹型生産構造であるため, 光の利用効率が高く, 結果として葉の果実生産能率が高まって, 果実生産性が高まるものと考えられる.

The effects of planting density on productive structure and light environment were studied in 11-year-old 'Starking Delicious' apple trees (Malus domestica Borkh.) grafted on M.26 dwarfing rootstock and trained to a central leader. 1. Low density plantings from 453 to 623 trees·ha<SUP>-1</SUP> became a collection of cone-shaped trees. The trees became columnar as planting density increased. Closely spaced trees grew together, losing their individual tree identity. 2. Productive structure in the 623 trees·ha<SUP>-1</SUP> plot was conifer type ; it shifted to a broad leaf type with increased density of planting. 3. Fruit and leaves had similar vertical distribution. Fruit production was highest in the 623 trees·ha<SUP>-1</SUP> plot, indicating that productive structure of coniferous trees has high productive potential. 4. The relationship between fruit production (Yd) and fruit production per unit leaf area (Yd/F) is represented by the Eq. (1), Yd=1.348+3.109 (Yd/F), indicating that the high fruit productivity in productive structure of coniferous trees depends on high fruit production per unit leaf area. 5. The coefficient of light extinction (K) decreased with increased density of planting ; that is, the fruit production decreased as K value decreased. 6. The relationship between fruit production (Yd) and light interception (LI) is approximated by the Eq. (2), Yd=-150.42+4.175(LI)-0.0273(LI)<SUP>2</SUP>, provided that 69.9%≤LI≤92.2%. The optimum light interception (LI<SUB>opt</SUB>) which maximizes fruit production is 76.5%. 7. The planting density and the LAI at the LI<SUB>opt</SUB> agreed with the optimum planting density and the optimum LAI reported previously (Kuroda and Chiba, 1999), respectively. 8. The characteristics of planting with an LI<SUB>opt</SUB> were unevenness of crown surface, space among canopies, and productive structure of coniferous trees. 9. From the Eqs. (1) and (2), the relationship between fruit production per unit leaf area (Yd/F) and light interception (LI) can be expressed as the Eq. (7), Yd/F=48.816+1.343(LI)-0.009(LI)<SUP>2</SUP>, where 69.9%≤LI≤92.2%. The theoretical curve fits with the experimental data, indicating that fruit production per unit leaf area depends on light interception. These results indicate that high-density planting systems of apple trees with high fruit productions should be designed on the basis of LAI with optimum light interception. The efficiency for sunlight utilization rises because such orchard is a productive structure of coniferous trees resulting in an increase of fruit production per unit leaf then high fruit production is attained.

Journal

  • Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science

    Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science 71(4), 544-552, 2002-07-15

    THE JAPANESE SOCIETY FOR HORTICULTURAL SCIENCE

References:  22

Cited by:  5

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110001816642
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00025257
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    00137626
  • NDL Article ID
    6221988
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZR7(科学技術--農林水産--農産)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z18-172
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS  IR  J-STAGE  NDL-Digital 
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