青年の生活に対する態度の特質に関する研究  [in Japanese] STUDIES ON CHARACTERISTICS OF ADOLESCENTS' ATTITUDES TOWARD LIFE  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

(1) 第1部として, 青年の生活に対する態度を測定して, その構造的特質を明らかにするために, 予め作成した生活態度尺度をもちいて, 157人の学生の反応をとら え, これを, 同様にしてえられた35~45才の成人の反応と比較しつつ検討した。<BR>(2) 態度測定尺度の質問項目別の青年,成人両群の比較と, 同じ尺度への反応を因子分析して見出しえた4個の生活態度因子にもとづく, 両群反応の態度合成点の比較とによつて, 青年の生活態度のいくつかの内容的特質を明らかにしえた。<BR>(3) 第2部として, 青年の生活態度傾向が実験的に設定された集団討議の過程によつて, どのように変容するかを調べることによつて青年のもつ生活態度の確定性もしくは変容性の度合を明らかにしようとした。<BR>(4) 集団討議過程は青年の生活態度の変容に十分に有効な機能を果した。このことから青年のもつ生活態度が自らのpersonality systemに十分に根を下ろしていないという, 生活態度の不確定的特質が推論された。<BR>(5) 集団討議にもとづく成員の態度変容の方向ならびに方向量の検証から, 集団規準の自発的設定にともなう特殊な規準効果が明らかにされた。このことから青年における生活態度の易変性が推論された。

The aim of this paper was to study the next two points.<BR>First, to measure and to examine the characteristics of adolescents' attitudes toward life by means of the attitude scales provided previously for this purpose.<BR>In the second, to clarify the degree of instability of adolescents' attitudes toward life, observing how the trends of their attitudes are changed through the group discussion processes experimentally established.<BR>Part 1: Measurement of adolescents' attitudes toward life.<BR>Method and procedure: In the first place, the responses of students (157 Ss) to the attitude scales which were provided preliminarily for measuring their attitudes toward life, were obtained, and, those of adults (58 Ss) who had been selected in order to make a comparison with students, were also obtained. Both of those responses were then compaired and analysed.<BR>Secondly, using the composite scores computing for the four attitudinal factors on the way of living which were found by the factorial analysis based on the data obtained from the same attitude scsles, the characteristics of responses of both the students and the adults were compaired and investigated.<BR>Result: Synthesizing the data obtained from the two procedures the following findings were obtained. 1) Both the groups of the students and the adults made considerably positive responses to the “uneventful, easy, and petit-bourgeois” way of living, and there wac, ro distinct difference between them.<BR>2) Both the, groups showed fairly positive responses to the “constructive, spiritual, and socialcentered” attitude. There was, however, statistically significant difference between them:the students group tended toward more negative direction on the attitudinal continuum than the adult group.<BR>3) To the “sensational, pragmatic, and individualistic” attitude, both the groups responded more positively to some extent, and there was no essential difference between the two groups.<BR>4) To the “nihilistic, negative, and fatalistic” way of living, both the groups of students and adults made considerably great negative responses, and there was no difference between them.<BR>Part 2: The experiment of attitudinal change. Method and procedure: Out of the subjects used in Part 1, fourty-seven subjects and the sixty-seven were selected for the experimental and the control group respectively.<BR>The former subjects were then divided into 9 small groups, and each small group was designed to have, between the pre and post-attitudinal tests, group discussions with reference to the theme,“how we should live in this modern society” The latter subjects were twice administered with the equal interval being asked to fill the same attitude test as the former did.<BR>Results and discussion:<BR>1) It was revealed that the group discussion processes were sufficiently effective for changing the adolescents' attitudes toward life.(See Table 6, 7) This result suggests that adolescents' attitudes toward life are not firmly introjected in their personality systems: their attitudes were rather unstable.<BR>2) The direction of their attitudinal changes had an obvious tendency to move to the average level of the pretest scores, which can be called the “latent” group standard in each group.<BR>3) when the directions of the change were considered quantitatively, as it is seen in Fig. 1, 2, these figural patterns considerably differed from the “conformity” pattern, as they passed each other rather than approaching mutually.<BR>The author concludes that these trends may indicate the indefiniteness and the changeability of the adolescents' attitudes with reference to their life.

Journal

  • The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology

    The Japanese Journal of Educational Psychology 6(1), 7-13,61, 1969

    The Japanese Association of Educational Psychology

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