中・高年齢者における足関節可動域の規定因子  [in Japanese] MUSCULOSKELETAL FACTORS INFLUENCING ANKLE JOINT RANGE OF MOTION IN THE MIDDLE-AGED AND ELDERLY INDIVIDUALS  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本研究では, 足関節可動域に筋腱複合体の伸長性や筋力, 性差, 年齢が影響を及ぼすという仮説を立て, 測定を行った.被検者は185名の健常な中・高年齢者 (女性116名, 男性69名; 48歳~86歳) であった.足関節を一定のトルクで背屈方向に回転したときの受動背屈角度を計測した.超音波法により腓腹筋内側頭の遠位筋腱移行部の移動から筋線維伸長を計測し, 関節角度変化から推定した全筋長変化からアキレス腱伸長を推定した.また, 最大随意等尺性足底屈・背屈トルク, 被検者が最大努力で背屈動作を行ったときの足関節角度 (能動背屈角度) , 下腿前部・後部の筋厚を計測した.男女とも, 受動背屈角度と下腿後部の筋厚との間には有意な負の相関関係が認められた.受動背屈角度と受動背屈時の筋線維伸長およびアキレス腱伸長との間に比例傾向がみられた.筋厚, 筋力, 筋厚当たりの筋力は男女とも年齢と負の相関関係が存在した.受動背屈角度は女性が男性よりも有意に大きく, また高齢の被検者ほど小さくなる傾向であったが, 能動背屈角度は男女差および年齢との間に有意な相関関係はみられなかった.<BR>以上の結果から, 仮説は検証され, 以下の結論が導かれた.すなわち,<BR>1) 受動背屈角度には伸長される筋群の伸長抵抗性が影響を及ぼし, これには筋量や筋腱複合体 (特に腱組織) の力学的性質が影響する.女性は男性よりも受動背屈角度が大きく, 男女とも加齢によって低下する.<BR>2) 能動背屈角度は伸長される筋群の伸長抵抗性に加えて, それを伸長する筋群の筋力が影響を及ぼす.女性の場合, 筋力発揮能力が低いが, 受動伸長組織が少ないために男性と同様の能動背屈角度を達成できる.同様の機序を通じて, 能動背屈角度には加齢の影響が少ない.

The factors influencing ankle range of motion were investigated for 185 middle-aged and elderly subjects (116 women and 69 men, aged 48-86 years) . Each subject was seated with the right knee extended, and the ankle joint was passively dorsiflexed by a dynamometer with torque just tolerable for each subject, to measure the maximal dorsiflexion angle. During passive loading, elongation of muscle fibers in the gastrocnemius and Achilles tendon was determined in vivo by ultrasonography. There was a difference between women and men for the passive dorsiflexion angle (men smaller than women), which negatively correlated with muscle thickness of the posterior portion of the leg determined by ultrasonography. Both in women and men, the passive dorsiflexion angle negatively correlated with age, even after normalizing for maximal voluntary plantar flexion torque. Both elongation of muscle fibers and tendon was related to the passive dorsiflexion angle, and the ratio of tendon elongation to muscle fiber elongation positively correlated with the passive dorsiflexion angle. The active dorsiflexion angle, measured separately with the subject maximally dorsiflexing the ankle with no load, correlated with the passive dorsiflexion angle but not with age, and there was no gender difference. From the results it was suggested 1) that the mobility of the ankle joint is affected by elongation of both muscle fibers and tendon, but with the effect of the tendon being greater than that of muscle fibers, and 2) that muscle mass negatively affects passively-induced joint range of motion. Actively performed joint range of motion would be affected by elongation of the muscle-tendon corn plex and force-generating capability of the ankle. Gender difference in joint range of motion and the aging effect are related to these factors.

Journal

  • Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine

    Japanese Journal of Physical Fitness and Sports Medicine 52, 149-156, 2003-08-01

    The Japanese Society of Physical Fitness and Sport Medicine

References:  17

Cited by:  1

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110001915011
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00137986
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    0039906X
  • NDL Article ID
    6748750
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZF21(教育--体育)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-301
  • Data Source
    CJP  CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS  IR  J-STAGE 
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