南涼政権(三九七-四一四)と徙民政策 [in Japanese] The Southern Liang Dynasty (397-414) and the Hsi-min (徙民) Policy [in Japanese]
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The Southern Liang dynasty in the Wu-hu-shih-liu-kuo (五胡十六国) period was a very short-lived local dynasty that rose and fell in Ch'ing-hai (青海) province. This dynasty carried out numerous Hsi-min measures. The aim of this article is to make clear the purpose of these Hsi-min measures with relation to the structure of the dynasty. The Southern Liang dynasty carried out twelve Hsi-min measures which is the greatest number in any of the Five Liang dynasties. Countermeasures accompanying the suppression of a rebellion were infrequent, and in eight of the twelve cases the object of Hsi-min measures was to deal with the Chinese under the various hostile Liang dynasties. They were not from the powerful strate of society but mainly from the peasant strate. The aggressive action of the Southern Liang constantly proceeded to achieve the aim of forced migration of these Chinese. The Southern Liang dynasty waged an aggressive war against forces hostile to it by forcing all the Chinese people under its jurisdiction to engage in agricultural production around walled cities, and by using the tax revenue extracted from them as a financial basis to organize military forces made up of the mobile Hsien-pei (鮮卑) tribe. However, since the number of Chinese under their rule was not large, the Southern Liang had to move Chinese people out of areas under the hostile forces by means of the Hsi-min measures. Also in the case of the Hsia dynasty which was established by the Hsiung-nu (匈奴), the Hsi-min measures were carried out to move Chinese under the hostile forces with the aim of supplying labour for agricultural work. The two common features of the Southern Liang and the Hsia dynasties are the following ; one, the minority race which ruled the dynasty was not agrarian but mainly nomadic ; and two, both were dynasties on the frontier, where there were few Chinese.
- SHIGAKU ZASSHI
SHIGAKU ZASSHI 89(1), 42-63,137-136, 1980
The Historical Society of Japan