Toquz Oγuzと「九姓」の諸問題について On the Problems of Toquz Oγuz and Chiu-hsing (九姓)
From this paper which examines the questions of tur(u)k, toquz oruz and Chiu-hsing (九姓), the following conclusions have been drawn. 1)T'ieh-le (鉄勒) originally might be the trans-literation of tur(u)k, but to T'u-chueh (突厥, tur(u)k) the name tur(u)k could only refer to themselves, and they did not use the word tur(u)k to refer the group that the Chinese called T'ieh-le. The group name T'ieh-le had already disappeared before the period of the Second T'u-chueh Khanate (突厥第二可汗国). Therefore, it is impossible to find the original sound of T'ieh-le in the inscriptions of T'u-chueh. The Chinese name T'ieh-le which was used for the Turkic tribes excluding T'u-chueh was used in the above sense. 2)There were three expressions to refer to a confederation of T'ieh-le in China. They were Chiu-hsing (九姓), Chiu-hsing T'ieh-le (九姓鉄勒) and T'ieh-le Chiu-hsing (鉄勒九姓). Chiu-hsing literally is a translation of toquz oruz, and T'ieh-le which was added to Chiu-hsing in the letter two cases might have been an addition made by the Chinese. 3)Concerning the names of Chiu-hsing T'u-cueh (九姓突厥) and T'u-chueh Chiu-hsing (突厥九姓), only one case in which Chiu-hsing T'u-chueh appears is evidently an error for Chiu-hsing T'ieh-le, but all the other examples of Chiu-hsing T'u-chueh and T'u-chueh Chiu-hsing are not mistakes and should be read as they are. 4)Chiu-hsing which appears in the terms Chiu-hsing, Chiu-hsing T'ieh-le, T'ieh-le Chiu-hsing, Chiu-hsing preceding a particular tribe name (九姓+部族名) and Chiu-hsing Hui-ho (九姓回〓) should be considered as refering to a single group of Chiu-hsing. Therefore Chiu-hsing preceding a particular tribe name means a tribe belonging to Chiu-hsing and Chiu-hsing Hui-ho means Hui-ho belonging to Chiu-hsing. 5)There are two different sets of names of Chiu-hsing in "T'ang Hui-yao (唐会要)" and "Chiu T'ang-shu (旧唐書)". This paper shows that though the nine names of the Chiu-hsing in "T'ang Hui-yao" in the past were said to be the nine tribe names of the T'ieh-le, and different from the nine sub-tribe names of the Hui-ho in "Chiu T'ang-shu", I believe that both groups of Chiu-hsing should be regarded as the same ; one as tribe names and the other as tribe head surnames. This interpretation is supported by the Khotanese text of Stael-Holstein scroll. 6)The number of sub-tribes in the Hui-ho might have been ten and not nine.
史学雑誌 90(12), 1785-1801,1865-, 1981