物質同定時にみられる判断の実態 : 誤差認識に注目して Research on students' judgment in the identification of elements by density through analyzing error recognition
The purpose of this research is to clarify error recognition here related to the identification of elements. It is common for junior high school students to group bad technique, unclear reasoning and even simple mistakes under the umbrella of "Error" when drawing conclusions in laboratory reports. We call this tendency "Subjective Error", because students know neither the definition of statistical errors and systematic errors, which should be called "Objective Error", nor how to discriminate them from experimental mistakes. By means of a questionnaire investigation of junior high school students, the features of "Subjective Error" in the identification of elements were as follows:(1) Each student chose an allowable range of error, and based on this choice, determined the element's identification.(2)When only the density of one element was given, each student set the allowable range to either side of the given value.(3)When several elemental density values were given, students tended to pick one of two ways to set ranges. In the first case, the same allowable range as mentioned above(2)was chosen. In the other, the alowable range was influenced by neighboring density values and was expanded towards them.(4)The allowable range increased with an apparent increase in students' uncertainty of identification.(5)These features are also observed in error recognition by University freshmen.
科学教育研究 24(4), 217-225, 2000