生産システムから学習システムへ : 1990年代の欧米における工業地理学の研究動向(<特集>産業空間および生活空間の再編と交通・通信・情報) [in Japanese] From Production Systems to Learning Systems : Research Trend of Industrial Geography in Europe and America in the 1990s(Special Issue:Spatial Implication of Information Technology) [in Japanese]
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本稿は, 1990年代の欧米工業地理学の特徴を, (1)産業集積を最大の関心事とすること, そして(2)それを把握する分析軸が従来の生産システムを主としたものから, 知識やイノベーションの役割とその創出過程を重視した, いわば学習システムの視点を持ったものに変化していることと捉え, 当該分野の研究動向の把握を行った.ローカルミリュウ論, 学習地域論, そして集団的学習過程論の3つを取り上げ, 方法論的特性や分析視角のオリジナリティ等を論じるとともに, 若干の批判的コメントも施した.ローカルミリュウや学習地域は, 「産業地区」がいわば進化した形態と捉えられ, ローカルな不確実性低下機能やイノベーション能力を有している.知識経済化の下では, 産業集積はこうした側面を強めると考えられ, わが国の工業地理学においても理論面での消化・吸収と実証研究の遂行が必要であることを主張した.
In the 1990s, academics had come to be very much interested in the knowledge-based economy, which is one of the typical features of contemporary capitalism, as well as in the global economy.Industrial geographers in European countries and America had also come to pay attention to the processes of knowledge creation and innovation at the local level and consequently developed new theoretical frameworks to grasp these processes.It can be said that their interest had shifted from input-output linkages or production systems to "learning, "which is the most important process for accumulating knowledge and converting it into new knowledge.This paper aims at reviewing studies on local "learning systems"related to industrial agglomeration.The author classifies these studies into three themes:1)the "local milieu"model, 2)the "learning region"theory and 3)the "collective learning process"school.After a brief explanation of these themes, the author discusses their contributions to the agglimeration theory with some critical comments.1)According to Camagni(1991), "local milieu"is defined as a collective operator to reduce uncertainty in the innovation process of SMEs(small and medium sized enterprises)by performing the SSSTTC functions(search, signaling, selection, transcoding, transformer and control)(Fig.2).The local milieu school can provide theoretical notions to approach the local system of innovation, but these notions do not specify the real-life mechanisms of the SSSTTC functions due to the lack of empirical fieldwork.2)"Learning region"as named by Florida(1995)functions as a repository of knowledge and provides an infrastructure that facilitates the flow of knowledge and learning on the regional scale.Scholars belonging to this school underline the implication of "institutional thickness, "which promotes the local innovation system as well as the knowledge related infrastructure.They have clarified not only the mechanism of regional knowledge circulation, but also the comprehensive structures of learning regions.3)The "collective learning process"evolved by TSER members is the notion that a social process creates and further develops the base of shared knowledge among the individuals making up a local production system.After providing an analytical description of the process using the following types of data:1)flows of researchers, managers and skilled workers within a local labor market, 2)technical transfers within the region through entrepreneurial and company spin-offs, and 3)inter-company and organizational networking and linking, the members explain the formation of the local innovation system.The author regards the above "local milieu"or "learning region"as an advanced spatial form of an "industrial district, "based on Capello's model(Fig.4).The authors then claims that Japanese industrial geographers should also develop theoretical frameworks and conduct empirical surveys to understand regional growth under Japan's knowledge-based economy.
- Annals of the Association of Economic Geographers
Annals of the Association of Economic Geographers 46(4), 323-336, 2000
The Japan Association of Economic Geography