JCTVの事業展開と経営的成功の背景 Development of Japan Cable Television since 1971
Japan Cable Television, or JCTV, is a licensed CATV operator under the Japanese Cable Television Law, enacted in 1974. It is rather unique in that it, alone among cable television operators, is permitted to lease its cable network from Nippon Telegraph & Telephone Corporation ( NTT ); the ministry of Posts & Telecommunications ( MPT ) generally requires cable operators to own their own networks, although the law does not make such a stipulation. Such freedom from vast capital investment is one of the major factors becind JCTV's success. JCTV was established in 1971, funded mainly by the Asahi Shimbun group, in order to supply an EngliSh-language channel to closed circuit systems of Tokyo's most prestigious hotels. At that time it was practically impossible for various regulatory reasons to build a new cable network, especially in Tokyo ; leasing its cables from NTT made JCTV viable. In 1974 JCTV embarked upon a new venture, so-called "mansion network" broadcasts to individual Tokyo subrcribers. Due to the high montyly charge, however, this service was mainly limited to foreign businesses. While JCTV charged its subscribers \3,000 per month, subscribers were forced to pay an average of \100,000 monthly to NTT to maintain their line. Even with such exorbitant fees, JCTV managed to gain 5,000 new subscribers by the mid 198O's. In 1982 JCTV formed a partnership with Turner Broadcasting System (TBS) of Atlanta, Georgia (USA) and began a systematic program exchange. A direct satellite link established in 1984 not only added proglams from CNN (Cable News Network) to JCTV programming but allowed JCTV to supply CNN 24 hours a day as an alternative service available on subscribers' request. In addition, JCTV produced a Japanese version of "Daywatch" and similar programming for Asahi National Broad-casting Company, Ltd. (ANB), one of the four nation-wide private TV network orgenizers in Japan and a major JCTV shareholder. ANB, in turn, began selling these programs to its local network operators.
新聞学評論 38(0), 138-151,271-27, 1989