平均点以上効果が示すものは何か : 評定対象の獲得容易性の効果 What is indicated by the above-average effect? Effects of ease/difficulty of acquiring traits or abilities to be judged
Kruger (1999) has shown that the above-average effect occurs because people cannot take into account of other peoples' abilities, and instead they rely on their own abilities when they evaluate themselves relative to others. Kruger also has shown that the below-average effect appears when the absolute level of 9 person's abilities is low. Two studies were conducted to examine whether the same mechanism can apply to : (1) trait judgments ; (2) negative traits ; and (3) Japanese participants. The results revealed that the occurrence of above or below average effects were basically dependent on the relative ease or difficulty of possessing (or not possessing) each trait. In addition, various types of measurements were employed and compared in these studies. Results of correlations with self-esteem revealed that : (1) comparing oneself with the average person, and comparing the average person with oneself taps into different constructs when direct comparisons were made ; and (2) asking about oneself or the average person first, made substantial differences in the results when indirect comparisons were made.
社会心理学研究 19(3), 195-208, 2004