全国自治体による激震被災地への支援のあり方 : (1)阪神淡路大震災における実態調査と要因分析 Helping Activities by Local Governments to Earthquake Damaged Areas (1) : Post-Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake Nation-wide Questionnaire Survey on Factors Determining Municipalities' Helping Activities
In Japan, emergency response has been based on the assumption of self-reliant activities by the local governments of damaged areas with few coordinated activities from other local governments or agencies. However, the catastrophic experience of the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake has taught us that municipality based self-reliant activities alone are not effective and that coordination among local governments is of paramount importance. In order to clarify local government helping activities, aid data were collected via questionnaires distributed to 3,238 municipalities, excluding those 10 cities and towns in Hyogo Prefecture in which the Disaster Relief Law has already been adopted. The findings indicate that helping activities by local governments can be divided into four types and are systematically influenced by various factors such as time frame and regional characteristics. The types and levels of helping activities were related to: a) the population size of the supporting municipality, b) the existence of a mutual aid agreement, c) the distance from the damaged area. These results emphasize the importance of recognizing the human and material resources of local governments, the prudence of viewing the whole country as one unit based on a mutual aid agreement, and the necessity for the development of a helping activities system.
自然災害科学 23(1), 65-77, 2004-05-30