山間農村における植生景観の構造とその変遷 : 広島県比和町を事例として Pattern and Process of Vegetation Landscape in a Mountainous Farm Village--A Case Study at Hiwa-cho, Hiroshima Prefecture

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広島県比和町の1/25,000現行植生図をもとに,山間農村における植生景観の構造と変遷を,社会的変化と対応させながら分析した。その結果,次のようなことがわかった。(1)9地区問では,水田面税比率が増加するにつれて植生ユニットの個数は増加し,平均面積は減少する。(2)小面積の植生ユニットは,水田の近くに多数分布していた。これは,ススキ草原として維持されてきた採草地が,小規模のスギ・ヒノキ植林や,放置によって成立したコナラ-アベマキ群集で細分化されたためであった。各農家が水田に付随した採草地を個々に所有していたことが,植生ユニットの分布構造の多様性が生じた原因の一つであった。(3)大面稜の楠生ユニットは,水田から離れて分布していた。それは,かつてたたら製鉄のための薪炭林であったと同時に共同放牧地でもあった範囲,および公有林の範囲と一致していた。ここは,大規模なスギ・ヒノキ植林や,薪炭林としての利用放棄により遷移したミズナラ-クリ群集,コナラ-アベマキ群集の高木林で構成されていた。また,放牧圧の低下により,ススキ-ボクチアザミ群集に進行遷移した場所もあった。(4)比和町はミズナラ-クリ群集,コナラ-アベマキ群集の両方が生育できる気候帯にあるが,各地区の位置する標高によってその分布様式は異なった。このことが,植生ユニットの分布構造の多様性を生じさせる原因の一つとなっていた。

The purpose of this paper is to reveal the pattern and process of vegetation landscape in relation to change in the social system in a mountainous area. All of Hiwa-cho (subdivided into 9 sections), a farm village in the Chugoku Mountain range, was examined in this research. The actual vegetation map of Hiwa-cho drawn at a scale 1:25,000 (as of 1988) was analyzed by each of the vegetation units, i.e. the number of all vegetation units and their sizes were measured. Then three representative sections (Oppara, Kowada, and Nunomi) were selected and their distribution patterns of vegetation units were analyzed in detail. Social change in the area was examined and measured through statistical books and interviews. These results were as follows: 1. Among the nine sections, as large as the ratio of paddy fields, the number of vegetation units were increased. Namely, the section with larger paddy fields has more vegetation units, therefore its degree of landscape diversity was enhanced. The small vegetation units were located nearby paddy fields. This pattern is caused by the subdivision of the Quercetum variabili-serratae and small units of Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa plantations in an abandoned meadow of the Arundinello-Miscanthion sinensis. This meadow had been used for mowing. Each farmer had the dispersed meadows connected with paddy fields. After the revolutionary change of fuel and fertilizer, it has been treated in different manners. As a result, it produced the diverse vegetation landscape. 2. The large vegetation units were distributed far from paddy fields. These units originated from the territory of served coppice forests for "Tatara" steal manufacture, cooperative pastures, and public forests. It seems that forests of every height class of the Castaneo-Quercetum crispulae (same as Q. mongolica var. grosseserrata) and the Quercetum variabili-serratae used to be distributed mosaically in this territory as coppice forests. At the present, this area consists of large units of the Cryptomeria japonica and Chamaecyparis obtusa plantations, and tall tree forests of the Castaneo-Quercetum crispulae and the Quercetum variabiliserratae. The secondary succession from the GerarLio-Zoysietum japonicae to the Saussureo-Miscanthetum sinensis occurred at the pasture where the grazing pressure of cattle was less. 3. The Castaneo-Quercetum crispulae and the Aralio-Rubetum crataegifolli grew at the slopes of more than 700m altitude, and the Quercetum variabili-serratae and the Mallotus japonicus community were distributed at less than 700 m in Hiwa-cho. This is one of the causes which increase the diversity of vegetation landscape. Even in similar size sections, the diversities of vegetation units were different because of these topographical and climatic factors.

収録刊行物

  • 地理科学

    地理科学 44(2), 53-69, 1989

    地理科学学会

被引用文献:  5件中 1-5件 を表示

各種コード

  • NII論文ID(NAID)
    110002960151
  • NII書誌ID(NCID)
    AN00147775
  • 本文言語コード
    ENG
  • 資料種別
    雑誌論文
  • ISSN
    0286-4886
  • NDL 記事登録ID
    2931902
  • NDL 刊行物分類
    D36;RA47
  • NDL 雑誌分類
    ZG1(歴史・地理)
  • NDL 請求記号
    Z8-5
  • データ提供元
    CJP引用  NDL  NII-ELS  J-STAGE 
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