鳥海山 1974 年の火山活動 1974 Activity of Chokai Volcano, Northeastern Japan
Volcanic activity at the snow-capped summit of Mt. Chokai was first noticed by the captain of scheduled airline on March 1, 1974. The activity began with swarm of volcanic earthquakes, succeeded by fumarolic activity and finally explosion took place and a few craters were formed at eastern (late February-early March) and western (late April) foot of 1801 lava dome (Shinzan). The ejecta were exclusively fine-grained air-fall ash and accidental blocks. The blocks, formed the mud flow mixed with melted snow, rushed down the slope of volcanic edifice. Essential materials, such as bombs, air-fall scoria, or lava flows were not erupted. Rapid melting of snow was supposed to have been triggered by the formation of fumaroles caused by ascent of hot magma and associated juvenile gas. Thermal energy consumed for melting and evaporating snow is calculated as 3×10<sup>21</sup> ergs. Total volume of mud-flow deposit is around 3×10<sup>4</sup> cubic meters, and that of air-fall ash is an order of 10<sup>5</sup> cubic meters. The entire area which showed thermal activity is approximately 700×200 meters, elongated in east-west direction. Distribution of earthquake foci was also trending east-west just passing the prehistoric summit and parasitic vents. Direction of vent alignments is the same for the most volcanoes in northeastern Japan, and is supposed to reflect regional stress field.
火山.第２集 20(2), 51-64, 1975