小値賀島単成火山群における噴石丘の溶岩流出形態 The Mode of Lava Outflow from Cinder Cones in the Ojika-Jima Monogenetic Volcano Group
The lava effusion process from a cinder cone and its mechanism are discussed based on the field observation of Ojika-Jima Monogenetic Volcano Group (OMVG). The cinder cones of OMVG are classified into two types, C-type and D-type cones, based on the mode of lava effusion from the cone. In the C-type cone, lava overflowed from the central crater, whereas in the D-type cone, lava flowed out from the flank. These types are related to the morphology and internal structure of the cone. The ratio of cone height (H<sub>co</sub>) to width (W<sub>co</sub>) of the C-type is smaller than that of the D-type, and the part of the dense welding is widespread around the cone. On the other hand, the welding area of the D-type is within the limits to the central part of the cone. The D-type is further divided into two types; Dc-type is accompanied by a mountain body collapse with lava effusion and Dp-type does not have this collapse. The majority of Dc-type cones are larger than Dp-type cones, although the ratios of H<sub>co</sub>/W<sub>co</sub> are similar. In the OMVG, a thin dike (less than 1 m thick) is generally observed inside the cone. However, if a dike intrusion does not have enough stress to collapse a mature cone, a branched dike system could cause a much larger load to the slope of cone and push a sector of the cone outward. Therefore, a branched dike system seems to control in cone breaching. The dike system is always observed inside Dc-type cones, while it is rare inside Dp-type cones. Considering the concept of crack propagation in an elastic body, the dike branches off under the condition that the breaking strength of the deposit around the tip of a feeder dike is low. Accordingly, the collapse of a cinder cone caused by a branched dike system is incident in the larger-scaled cinder cone, especially when the welded area is restricted to the central part of the cone and altitude difference between the lava lake in the crater and the top of the dike is large. It has been assumed in previous works that the density difference between the lava and cinder cone is the main controlling factor for the mode of lava effusion from the cinder cone. In this paper, the author concluded that the degree of welding around the feeder dike and total volume of the cinder cone are the major controlling factors in the dike propagation process.
火山 48(1), 11-25, 2003