О ПОНЯТИИ "ФАКТУРА" :
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In the Russian Avant-Garde concepts are as important as works. Many original concepts came into being there and they grew traversing from one art to another. In order to understand the Russian Avant-Garde it is necessary to comprehend such concepts. Among these concepts are montage, construction, displacement (sdvig), bestrangement (priem ostranenija), and a device laid bare (obnazenie priema); and faktura is also one of these concepts. Many concepts in the Russian Avant-Garde are derived from the visual arts. However, it may be said that montage and faktura are typical examples. While faktura has been used as a divice of painting since the birth of pictures, it is avangardists that developed faktura as a concept. Faktura stands on the position of the general economy of art and therefore it can free us from the constrained economy of art. As techne mediates between nature and culture, so faktura mediates between materials and texts. Therefore, it belongs to both the real materials and the devices of art. Faktura in the Russian Avant-Garde can be classified into three categories: (i) faktura in pictures, (ii) faktura in Russian Cubo-Futurism, (iii) faktura in Constructivism. They all have a common aim, which is to sharpen the sense of materials. We can find faktura not only in these three spheres, but also in novels, cinema, music and plays . However, we shall detail especially these three kinds of faktura. Faktura leads to the problem of ostranenie, at the same time to the concept of L. Hjelmslev "mening". In a few words, faktura is the springboad, by which experimental arts can spring into new forms of expression over the old conventional system of art. Faktura rejects the painting space based on perspectives, destroys the neutral and homogeneous language space, and erases the boundary between art and life. This concept is based on noise, material, process, environment and correlation between facts. The dynamics of the Russian Avant-Garde is guaranteed by the traverses of such concepts as faktura.
- Japanese Slavic and East European studies
Japanese Slavic and East European studies 8, 39-55, 1987
Japanese Society for Slavic and East European Studies