平安時代の喪服 - 諒闇装束を中心に - [in Japanese] The Mourning Dress in the Heian Period - With a Focus on the Ryoan Shozoku - [in Japanese]
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A certain style of mourning dress was established in the first part of the Heian period, and while almost all of the basic styles. Continued to be worn in later years, the more formal style did not appear until the latter part of the period. The formal style was called Sokutai and the informal one was known as Noushi, the same as those for the Kichibuku (normal dress), while the color itself played a key role. In the case of the Ryoan Shozoku, dressing in a blackish Tsurubami (dark brown) was normal, and Ihou (outer garments designed for each job ranking) was worn for service in the Imperial Palace. For public funeral occasions, mourning dress other than the Ryoan were Mumon Kan (plain cap without any pattern) and Nibiiro Hou (dark grey outer garments), Mumon Kan and Mumon Hou (outer garments without any pattern), and Aya Kan (cap with a pattern) and Aya Hou (outer garments with patterns) in descending order of relationship intimacy. The colors of Sitagasane (underwear) and Hakama (pants) were Nibiiro, Ao Nibiiro (bluish dark grey), Ao Kuchibairo (bluish brown) Ki Kuchibairo (yellowish brown) in descending order of the intimacy of relationship. Each person selected a combination of the style of the costume and the color from among those mentioned above, based on his or her own state of mind at each occasion. After the 49th day from the passing, which came to represent the end of one of the mourning periods, the color of the mourning dresses were gradually changed to lighter ones. Private mourning dress was also worn in accordance with public dress in principle, and females also changed their Kichibuku to those of dark grey colors.
- Journal of home economics of Japan
Journal of home economics of Japan 52(10), 973-982, 2001-10-15