相互教授が小学生の電流概念の変容に及ぼす効果とそのプロセス  [in Japanese] Using a Modified Reciprocal Teaching Strategy to Induce Conceptual Change : Elementary School Science Lessons  [in Japanese]

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Abstract

本研究では, 相互教授による概念変容を促す教授方略を開発し, 小学4年生理科の電流概念の授業を用いて, その教授効果を実証的に検討した。授業の議論過程でいかなる概念変容が生じ, その背後にいかなる要因が深く関与しているのかを, 発話事例のカテゴリー分析と解釈的分析の2つの観点から分析した結果, 以下のことが明らかになった。1)議論過程の導入期では, 「予想と理論化」の教授方略により, 課題の状況や自己・他者の理解状態を分析する, という思考活動がもたらされる。2)展開期では, 「発見の要約」の教授方略により, 他者と自己の考え方の差異が明確化され, 認知的葛藤が生成される。3)終末期では, 「証拠と予想・理論の調整」の教授方略により, 統合的な思考が創造され, 認知的葛藤が解消されることで概念変容が促される。また, 相互教授の議論の過程で大きな認知的葛藤が生じ, 議論が行き詰まった場合には, 「理論」と「証拠」を整合的に結びつける思考のガイダンスを取り入れる教授方略が概念変容を促進させることが示唆された。

The purposes of the present study were to develop a reciprocal teaching strategy to induce conceptual change, and to examine the effectiveness of the teaching strategy in elementary school science lessons on electric circuits. Participants in the study were the 30 students in a fourth grade class. Coding analysis and interpretive analysis of transactive discussions were used to evaluate conceptual change occurring during cooperative discussion during the lessons and to analyze variables that might be affecting change. The results were as follows : (1) In the initial phase of cooperative discussions, a teaching strategy of predicting and theorizing induced the students' activities of analyzing the task and the situation by themselves and with others, (2) in the development phase, a teaching strategy of summarizing results allowed the students to specify explicitly differences between their own ideas and those of others, which resulted in conceptual conflict, and (3) in the final phase, a teaching strategy of coordinating the predictions and theories to the results integrated the students' ideas so that conceptual conflicts were resolved. These results suggest that, in the course of reciprocal teaching, when maximum conceptual conflict was induced and discussions reached deadlock, a strategy incorporating thinking guidance for coordinating the predictions and theories to the results properly facilitated conceptual change.

Journal

  • The Japanese journal of educational psychology.

    The Japanese journal of educational psychology. 53(4), 551-564, 2005-12

    日本教育心理学会

Cited by:  2

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110003479881
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN00345837
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    Journal Article
  • ISSN
    00215015
  • NDL Article ID
    7771508
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZF1(教育)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z7-182
  • Data Source
    CJPref  NDL  NII-ELS  NDL-Digital 
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