Isolation of a Human Intestinal Bacterium That Transforms Mangiferin to Norathyriol and Inducibility of the Enzyme That Cleaves a C-Glucosyl Bond
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The <i>C</i>-glucosyl bond of <i>C</i>-glucosides generally tolerates acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. Many <i>C</i>-glucosides are cleaved by human intestinal bacteria. We isolated the specific bacterium involved in the metabolism of mangiferin (2-β-<small>D</small>-glucopyranosyl-1,3,6,7-tetrahydroxyxanthone), <i>C</i>-glucosyl xanthone, from a mixture of human fecal bacteria. The anaerobic <i>Bacteroides</i> species named MANG, transformed mangiferin to the aglycone, norathyriol, suggesting cleavage of a <i>C</i>-glucosyl bond. However, <i>B</i>. sp. MANG cleaved <i>C</i>-glucosyl in a dose- and time-dependent manner only when cultivated in the presence of mangiferin. Cleavage was abolished by inhibitors of RNA and protein syntheses, such as rifampicin and chloramphenicol, respectively, indicating that the enzyme that cleaves <i>C</i>-glucosyl is induced by mangiferin. In contrast, mangiferin did not affect bacterial α- and β-glucosidase activities under any conditions. The <i>C</i>-glucosyl-cleavage in cell-free extracts was not altered by potent glucosidase inhibitors such as 1-deoxynojirimycin and gluconolactone. Therefore, the <i>C</i>-glucosyl-cleaving enzyme substantially differs from known glucosidases that cleave <i>O</i>-glucosides. This is the first description of a specific intestinal bacterium that is involved in the metabolism of mangiferin and which produces a novel and inducible <i>C</i>-glucosyl-cleaving enzyme.
- Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Biological and Pharmaceutical Bulletin 28(9), 1672-1678, 2005
The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan