平安宮仁寿殿の建築について : その 1 平安時代中期および後期の仁寿殿 [in Japanese] ON THE ARCHITECTURE OF JIJU-DEN IN THE HEIAN-DAIRI : Part 1 Jiju-den in the middle and late Heian period [in Japanese]
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1)康和2年(1100)および保元2年(1157)に再建された平安宮仁寿殿は, ともに母屋(桁行七間・梁行四間)の四面に庇を付けた東西九間, 南北六間の平面規模をもつ建物と推察される。このうち南・北両庇は孫庇の形式であり, 架構上, 仁寿殿は七間四面(桁行九間・梁行四間)の主屋に南・北両面孫庇を付けた形と考えられる。屋根は桧皮葺入母屋造りで, 特に四隅の庇は角庇の形式とし一段低い屋根をかけていたらしい。『大内裏図考証』に考定されている平安宮仁寿殿の規模, 形態は康和・保元両度の仁寿殿に大略認めることができるが, 母屋(桁行七間・梁行四間)部分の平面構成は後者と大分異なる。『大内裏図考証』には仁寿殿の母屋中央一間に南北行の馬道を考定している。しかし, 管見ではそれを裏付ける史料は認められなかった。むしろ平安後期の記録によると, 康和・保元両度の仁寿殿は母屋中央に桁行三間・梁行四間の広さをもつ大室がとられ, それを中心に母屋部分は東西に大きく三つの隔が構成されていたと考えられる。中央の大室は南面南庇との境に妻戸三戸, 東西両面に妻戸および連子窓(壁上連子), 北面に妻戸および壁をたてていた。また大室東側の母屋桁行二間・梁行四間部分は妻戸などをたて一室を構成していたと思われる。大室西側の母屋桁行二間・梁行四間部分は中央に方二間の室を設けていた。この室は南面に格子をたて, 北面を壁とする。方二間の室の南側二ケ間は観音供の本尊を安置した念誦堂と推定される。なお, 康和・保元両度の仁寿殿は母屋に天井を張っていた。また母屋の内部一間毎に柱をたてていた可能性がある。2)康和・保元両度の仁寿殿にみられる平面規模および形態は, 基本的に, 応和1年(961)再建の平安宮仁寿殿にも認めることができる。応和以後の平安中期に再建された平安宮仁寿殿の建築については資料を欠いている。ただし, 天徳以後の度重なる平安宮内裏の造営において殿舎の数または殿舎寸法の高大を減ずべきこと, あるいは造営の過差を制すべきことが議せられたのは長保3年(1001)罹災後の内裏造営の時である。平安宮内裏の建物には, その後の再建造営において規模の変更が伝えられるものがある。けれども, 仁寿殿については応和および康和・保元の各期の建物にほぼ同一の平面規模と形態が認められるので, 平安中期の仁寿殿は前期の規模, 形態をほぼ踏襲して再建されたと推測される。なお, 平安中期までの平安宮仁寿殿は母屋に天井が張られなかったらしい。
Heian-Dairi first constructed in 794 is reported to have been destroyed by fire sixteen times in all during about 430 years from 794 to 1227. Each time it was destroyed Heian-Dairi was rebuilt, but not after the fire of 1227. Jiju-den was primarily built as the Emperor's private residence in Heian-Dairi. Jiju-den facing the south was located to the immediate north of Shishin-den. In the early Heian period Jiju-den was often used as the Imperial chamber, although after the reign of Emperor Uda Seiryo-den took the place of Jiju-den as a building for the Emperor's private life. Jiju-den which was rebuilt in the middle and late Heian period was mainly used for Nai-en (a private banquet at court), Sumo matches before the Emperor, or Buddhist mass. This paper is intended to show the original form of Jiju-den which was used for the Emperor's private life, through investigation and also through comparison of the architecture of Jiju-den at each reconstruction. The architecture of Jiju-den rebuilt in the middle and late Heian period is examined in Part 1 in this paper. 1) Jiju-den rebuilt in 1100 and in 1157 is supposed to be 9 ken long east and west and 6 ken long north and south in size, and to be also much the same in form. As for the type of structure the main building, or Shu-oku, was 9 ken in keta-yuki and 4 ken in hari-yuki, and to both the north and south sides of it was added Mago-bisashi. The roof was a hipped and gabled one covered with the brown bark of Japanese cypress, and, in particular, at each corner of the building there seems to have been lowered roof as Sumi-bisashi. The plan of Jiju-den rebuilt in 1100 and 1157 was roughly almost the same with what was described in the Daidairi-Zu-Kosho, but in point of construction of its interior space the former is very different from the latter. In the Daidairi-Zu-Kosho Me-do (a corridor) is shown to run through the center of Jiju-den, but on inquiry no evidence was found to support it. According to the records in the late Heian period, Jiju-den in those days contained a large room, 3 ken in keta-yuki and 4 ken in hari-yuki, in the center of the main building. The main building is supposed to be broadly divided into three parts. The central large room had three paneled doors on the south side, a paneled door and Renji windows on both the east and west side, a paneled door and walls on the north side. The next part on the east side, 2 ken in keta-yuki and 4 ken in hari-yuki, seems to have been shaped into one room marked off by paneled doors. The west part, abso 2 ken in keta-yuki and 4 ken in hari-yuki, was divided into three small rooms. The central 2 ken square room of them was partitioned off by latticed doors on the south side and by walls on the north side. The next room on the south side of the central square room, 2 ken in keta-yuki and 1 ken hari-yuki, is presumed to have been Nenju-no-ma in which Kannon-ku (Buddhist mass) was observed. 2) Jiju-den rebuilt in 961 is supposed to have had in essence the same form and construction in plan with the one rebuilt in 1100 and 1157. Too little data on Jiju-den rebuilt in the middle Heian period, after 961, has so far been available to show what it was like in form. Taking the similarity, however, between the forms of Jiju-den rebuilt in 961, 1100, and 1157 into consideration, it may be said that Jiju-den in the middle Heian period was reconstructed after the model of the early Heian period.
- Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan
Transactions of the Architectural Institute of Japan 257(0), 119-129, 1977
Architectural Institute of Japan