施設居住虚弱高齢者の生活実態と福祉用具による座位環境改善の試み  [in Japanese] Using Technical Aids to Improve the Seating Environment and Living Activities of Elderly Patients in Nursing Homes  [in Japanese]

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Author(s)

    • 齋藤 芳徳 "Saito Yoshinori
    • 川崎医療福祉大学医療福祉マネジメント学部医療福祉デザイン学科 "Department of Universal Design, Faculty of Health and Welfare Services Administration, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare
    • 松本 正富 Matsumoto Masatomi
    • 川崎医療福祉大学医療福祉マネジメント学部医療福祉デザイン学科 Department of Universal Design, Faculty of Health and Welfare Services Administration, Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare

Abstract

"本研究は,施設居住虚弱高齢者の座位を中心とした姿勢や生活行為についての実態を調査するとともに,試行的に導入した個別対応福祉用具(調整式車いす・リクライニング式車いす・調整式テーブル)が体圧分布と座位姿勢に与える影響を把握して,「高齢者-福祉用具-空間」の適合による生活の多様化と質の向上のための基礎資料を得ることを目的とした.特別養護老人ホーム(2人居室,16人単位のユニットケア)にて,移動能力別に自立群・一部介助群・全介助群の各3名を対象として,生活展開・睡眠-覚醒調査,個別対応福祉用具導入前後の体圧と座位姿勢調査を行なった.以下に結果を列記する. (1)日中の自室滞在時間は自立群・一部介助群が2〜3割に対して全介助群は5割,行為内容は前者の睡眠・無為が約1.5割に対して後者は9割も見られ,移動の自立度が日常生活に大きく影響することが確認された. (2)全介助群の睡眠時間は日中と夜間にほとんど差がなく,1日を通して分散していた. (3)車いすの個別対応により,すべり座りが改善され体幹が垂直に近づいた事例や,足の置き位置の自由度が増した事例が確認された.一方,テーブルの調整では,個人的なばらつきが大きく,姿勢観察からの全体的な傾向は捉えられなかった. (4)体圧分布では,調整式車いすの導入者に向上の傾向が見られた.リクライニング式車いすの場合はその効果が少なかったものの,リクライニング角が浅くなり座位姿勢自体が向上する事例が確認された."

"This study was designed to investigate the living activities and the effects of technical aids such as modular wheelchairs and tables with adjustable function on elderly people in nursing homes. The objective was to get basic data to diversify and raise the quality of life of elderly. The 9 subjects were classified into an independent group,a partial assisted group and an assisted group according to mobility. The living location and activity in the daytime, sleep-wake rhythms, sitting pressures and sitting postures before and after adoption of technical aids were investigated. The results are as follows: 1)Compared to the independent and partial assisted groups, subjects in the assisted group tended to stay in their own rooms and were idle or slept in the daytime. 2)The sleep time of subjects in the assisted group was dispersed throughout the day and night. 3)The Sitting posture of several subjects was improved by adjustments on the modular wheelchairs, but tables with adjustable functions didn't yield tangible results. 4)Sitting pressure was improved by adopting self-control wheelchairs, but not reclining wheelchairs while the but sitting posture of several subjects was improved by rising the back angle."

Journal

  • Kawasaki medical welfare journal

    Kawasaki medical welfare journal 15(2), 529-537, 2006

    Kawasaki University of Medical Welfare

Codes

  • NII Article ID (NAID)
    110004308611
  • NII NACSIS-CAT ID (NCID)
    AN10375470
  • Text Lang
    JPN
  • Article Type
    departmental bulletin paper
  • Journal Type
    大学紀要
  • ISSN
    09174605
  • NDL Article ID
    7888459
  • NDL Source Classification
    ZE5(社会・労働--社会問題・社会保障)
  • NDL Call No.
    Z6-3791
  • Data Source
    NDL  NII-ELS  IR 
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