早池峰山,蛇紋岩地帯の蘚類 [in Japanese] Serpentine Moss Flora of Mt. Hayachine [in Japanese]
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Mt. Hayachine, 1914m high, is the highest of the Kitakami range, large part of which consists of the Paleozoic rocks. The area from 1100m s.m. up to the summit is composed of serpentine. The mountain is well known for the occurrence of many intercsting higher plants growing on serpentine rocks. On bryophytes of Mt. Hayachine, only one paper has been published (HATTORI, 1957). In the summer of 1959 and also of 1967,the writer collected there about 424 specimens of bryophytes, in which 205 species of mosses were identified. Among them 84 species were collected in the serpentine area. NOGUCHI (1962) reported 45 species of mosses growing on serpentine of Mt. Apoi (810m s.m.) in Hokkaido, and 33 species of them are also found on the same rocks of Mt. Hayachine. Thus close similarity is seen between both floras. The difference in total number of species between the two may be chiefly due to the different altitude. Species listed in text are collected only in the alpine region which consists of serpentine. The species marked with an asterisk are common to those from the same rocks of Mt. Apoi. Except for some species such as Brachythecium populeum, Ceratodon purpureus, Dicranum scoparium, Grimmia apocarpa, Heterophyllium haldanianum, Rhacomitrium carinatum, R. heterostichum and Weissia controversa, which are distributed commonly in the lowland regions, the serpentine moss flora of the present alpine region is dominated by arctic (or alpine) to subarctic (or subalpine) elements, although the total number of these species is very small. HATTORI (1957) pointed out the following facts about the serpentine hepatic flora of this mountain : (1) scarcity of the number and quantity of species, (2) poor representation of arctic or subarctic elements, (3) separated distribution of many temperate or subtropical hepatics, (4) occurrence of some species characteristic to the northern Japanese serpentine hepatic flora, (5) no occurrence of hepatics limited to the serpentine region, (6) close similarity between the serpentine floras of Mt. Hayachine and Mt. Apoi. Of these facts, 1,2,5 and 6 are recognized also in the moss flora of this mountain, but we cannot find any typical example of 3 and 4,so far as the moss flora is concerned. The range of Schistostega pennata in Japan has hitherto been considered to be limited to Hokkaido and Middle Honshu. In the study of distribution of bryophytes in Japan and the adjacent region, HORIKAWA (1955) mentioned that, "it is a strange fact that this plant has never been found in Northeast Honshu which is situated between Hokkaido and Middle Honshu." The present collection of this plant from the north foot (900m s.m., not composed of serpentine) of Mt. Hayachine fills the gap in the known distribution of it. Campylopus schimperi is apparently rare in Japan and has only recorded from the summit of the second highest mountain in our country, Mt. Kitadake (3100m s.m.), which is also composed of the Paleozoic rocks. The summit of Mt. Hayachine is the second station of the present species which was found in a small tuft only on rock crevices.
- Memoirs of the National Museum of Nature and Science
Memoirs of the National Museum of Nature and Science (1), 52-55, 1968-03
National Science Museum