村寄り合いの「話し合い」の技法 : 日本的コミュニケーション文化の原型を探る Hanashiai"" in village meetings : an archetype of Japanese communication
While argumentation is a decision making mode of the western culture, its counterpart in the Japanese culture is "hanashiai". "Hanashiai" was originally developed in farming villages during the Edo period. Since then, "hanashiai" had been the major communication mode in Japan. In 1970s, "hanashiai" was praised as a significant factor to make incredible Japanese economic growth possible, for it maximizes group cohesion and productivity by forming a consensus. However, in the late 1980s, in accordance with the decline of the Japanese economy and the further westernization of society, the situation reversed itself and "hanashiai" became a target of criticism as an irrational relic of the past. Then, in 1990s, the Ministry of Education introduced "debate" into school curricula with the purpose of changing Japanese communication mode from "hanashiai" to western argumentation. The points I would like to argue in this essay are that "hanashiai" is not such an irrational mode of communication, but it is rather an elaborated and rational mode of communication to form a consensus within a group. For this purpose, this essay will 1) analyze historical and social backgrounds which brought about "hanashiai" as their mode of decision making in traditional Japanese villages; 2) illustrate the process by which "hanashiai" generates a group consensus; and 3) clarify the values behind the "hanashiai" culture in comparison with the western argument culture.
- 平安女学院大学研究年報 = Heian Jogakuin University journal
平安女学院大学研究年報 = Heian Jogakuin University journal 1, 83-94, 2001-03-10